ARCAA Contents & Abstracts Volume 26, 2011

ISBN 978-0-89641-502-7

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    An Examination of Case Law Regarding the Liability of Recreational Youth Sport Organizations for the Pedophilic Actions of Coaches, Administrators, and Officials Based on the Theory of Respondeat Superior, Thomas A. Baker III, Daniel P. Connaughton, James J. Zhang — Millions of children worldwide participate in youth sports and the literature demonstrates the problems of sexual abuse within sports. This study examined the applicability of the tort theory of respondeat superior in regards to recreational youth sport organizations potential liability for the pedophilic actions of their coaches, administrators, and officials. Comparisons and differences were drawn among the U.S. states in how they apply the law for the doctrine of respondeat superior. Practical implications are provided. (1-30)

  • Examining the Effects of Taking a Foreign Tour on Winning Percentage for NCAA Division I Men’s Basketball Teams, Nels Popp, Brian D Krohn — NCAA Division I men’s basketball teams frequently participate in off-season foreign tours. The purposes of this study were threefold: (a) to determine how many college teams utilize such tours (b) to determine whether tours give teams a competitive advantage, and (c) to determine whether teams taking tours “wear down” at the end of the season following the tour. Data regarding participation in off-season tours were collected from all 341 NCAA Division I schools (2007-2008 academic year). The researchers then ran statistical tests to determine if the winning percentages for touring teams were greater than non-touring teams. The researchers also examined whether winning percentage over the final 10 games of the season was greater for touring teams compared to non-touring teams. In both cases, the differences between cohorts were minimal and statistically insignificant, meaning teams going on off-season tours do not gain a competitive advantage in the season following their tour. (31-54)

  • What’s the Rush? Early Recruiting in Division I NCAA Athletics, Amanda L. Paule, M. Ryan Flett — Division I intercollegiate athletics has become a business. With billions of dollars in revenue in play and valuable television contracts on the line (Eitzen, 2003; McCormick & McCormick, 2006; Fulks, 2008; NCAA, 2010), coaches and athletic programs must field a team filled with highly talented players. The necessity to recruit high quality players is greater than ever since there is so much at stake. This study examines the recruitment process and the current trend of early recruiting that has emerged. Twenty-five head and assistant coaches from ten different athletic conferences were interviewed and insight was gained into why the recruitment process has appeared to have sped up and the rationale for early recruiting. The coaches overwhelmingly agreed the recruitment process has begun much earlier in the athlete’s career. However, the coaches had mixed feelings about the effects of early recruiting. Regardless of the coaches’ beliefs about early recruiting, they all believed the process was not going to slow down anytime soon. Further, while the coaches may not agree with early recruiting, it has become necessary to engage in early recruiting in order to keep up with the competition. (55-78)

  • The Influence of Acute Stretching on State-Anxiety and Exercise Self-Efficacy Prior to Physical Activity, William Davis Hale, Matt Vassar — This study examined the influence of stretching on state-anxiety and exercise self-efficacy prior to an acute bout of exercise. Sixteen moderately, physically active individuals (10 male, 6 female) were randomly assigned to one of two experimental trials. One trial (group) utilized a stretching intervention and the other trial (group) a non-stretching intervention. Each group completed the intervention prior to a staged sub-maximal cycling protocol. Two measures were used to assess state anxiety and exercise self-efficacy before cycling protocol. The STAI and Acute Exercise Self-Efficacy Questionnaire were used to detect differences of mean scores between each group. Mean scores from these instruments were compared using a dependent t-test from each group for measures state-anxiety (STAI: stretching = 22.4, non-stretching = 18.3, p = .046) and exercise self-efficacy (SE: stretching = 75.6, non-stretching = 68.5, p = .031). Results indicated an acute bout of stretching prior to physical activity significantly reduced state-anxiety and increased exercise self-efficacy. The findings suggest potential affective benefits of stretching before exercise for coaches to use when determining methods to increase athletic performance. (79-92)

  • The Influence of Dribbling on Running Speed and Skill in Adolescent Basketball and Team Handball Players, GalZiv, Gil Segal, Yoav Meckel, Ronnie Lidor — In ball games such as basketball and team handball, players are required to dribble the ball while sprinting. However, only a small number of studies have examined the influence of dribbling on sprint velocity in ball games. The purpose of this field study was to examine the differences in performance between sprinting while dribbling and sprinting without dribbling in adolescent basketball players, team handball players, and non-athletes. In addition, the relationship between running technique and sprint performance when dribbling or not dribbling was also examined. Participants were instructed to perform a 30-m all-out sprint test with and without dribbling. Three main findings emerged from the current study: (a) all groups completed the running course faster while running without dribbling than running with dribbling, although the time gap between the two performances was relatively small; (b) the differences between the dribbling and non-dribbling runs were greater in non-athletes than in both the basketball and the team handball players; (c) running techniques did not differ between groups. Due to the small gap in speed between the run without the ball and the run with the ball coaches can either plan pure fitness training sessions that are performed without balls, or minimize the use of short-distance sprints without dribbling and plan more activities in which players are asked to dribble the ball. (93-107)

  • Efficacy of Potentiation of Shot Put Performance through Heavy Medicine Ball Throws on Male Collegiate Shot Putters, David Bellar, Lawrence W. Judge — Athletes and coaches are constantly looking for the edge in competition; track and field is no exception. It has been reported that some throws’ coaches have utilized heavy implements in warm up to create further distances with the competition implement. The purpose of the present investigation was to determine the acute effects of a heavy medicine ball on subsequent standing shot put performance exploring the concept of throwing heavy to throw far. Four male collegiate shot putters were recruited to participate. A within-subjects design was used to compare the difference between mean and peak distance of throws under normal conditions (control) and of maximal throws with a heavy medicine ball to achieve height prior to the throws (PAP). The trials were completed on two separate days. Paired samples t-tests were performed to compare mean and peak distance between the two trials. Mean distances (Fig 1) between the CON Trial (10.68 ± 1.61 meters) and the PAP Trial (10.85 ± 1.74 meters) were not statistically significant (p = 0.062). Peak distances (Fig 2) between the CON trial (10.89±1.60 meters) and the PAP trial (11.24 ± 1.81 meters) were statistically significant (p=0.025). Also of interest were the significant correlations that were found in the difference between peak and average performance between the treatments and the reported bench press 1RM strength (Peak Diff. r = 0.883, p = 0.05, Avg Diff. r = 0.931, p = 0.035) (108-119)

  • Selecting Assistant Coaches: A Standards Based Human Resource Approach, Christopher M. Keshock, James E. Holbrook, Larry Gurchiek — The purpose of this study was to investigate some of the misperceptions that sports coaches (n=88) have relative to hiring practices and which lead to potentially serious questions about their abilities to conduct a search for a new staff member. Attempts were also undertaken to address the essential steps head coaches must consider when initiating and coordinating a search for hiring assistant coaches- a process requiring the development of insight toward coaching standards and hands on skills in the area of human resource management. Prudently accepting professionally published coaching standards as an important aid in human resource procedures represents a sound practice for head coaches to follow in the assumption of administrative responsibilities. A standards based strategy using NASPE benchmarks was established as a viable hiring methodology to address appropriate search, screening and selection criteria used to hire an assistant coach through the development of a job analysis, job description, and various interview procedures. (120-148)

  • Self-Perception of Ability Compared to Evaluation of Others’ Ability among Young Basketball Players, Sima Zach, Yossi Bonen — The study investigated how young athletes perceive their basketball skill abilities (self evaluation) while comparing them to their teammates' abilities (evaluation of others), and what correlations exist between the athletes' self-perception of ability and their evaluation by the coach. Five coaches and 81 male 11 year-old athletes from five youth league basketball teams in Israel participated in the study. Participants were asked to rate their own ability and their teammates’ ability. Coaches evaluated their players as well on the same abilities. Results indicated positive correlations between athletes' self-evaluation and coaches' evaluation (.821 > r > .447, p< .001). However, an extreme performance evaluation bias was revealed while correlating among athletes' evaluations of their teammates' abilities and coaches' evaluation (-.75 < r < -.903, p< .001), and between athletes' self-perception of ability and teammates' evaluation (-.527 < r < -.845, p< .001). These results were consistent among five teams. It is suggested that self evaluation and evaluation of others are two distinct abilities among adolescents. Therefore, these abilities should be nurtured differently in order to achieve positive youth development in sport settings. (149-177)

  • To What Extent Does Transformational Leadership Affect Employees? An Exploratory Analysis of a Collegiate Athletic Department, Damon P.S. Andrew, Seungmo Kim, Jennifer Stoll, Samuel Y. Todd — This exploratory study examined the effect of transformational leadership of an athletic director on the employees of an athletic department. While only a few scholars in sport management have explored the link between transformational leadership and work outcomes in general (Choi, Sagas, Park, & Cunningham, 2007; Doherty & Danylchuk, 1996; Kent & Chelladurai, 2001; Weese, 1994), none have examined its differential impact upon various foci of commitment. Given its potential to transform the follower, this study investigated the link between transformational leadership of a Football Bowl Subdivision (formerly known as Division I-A) athletic director and athletic director commitment, in addition to commitment to the organization. Additionally, the relationship between transformational leadership and job satisfaction of athletic department employees was also explored. A sample of 33 athletic department employees at a large Football Bowl Subdivision (FBS) Midwestern university participated in a survey (22.91% response rate). The results of Pearson correlations indicated the three dimensions of the transformational leadership were more strongly correlated with athletic director commitment than commitment to the organization, while job satisfaction was only slightly correlated with transformational leadership. The discussion of findings focuses on whether leadership has a stronger relationship with commitment to the supervisor than commitment to the organization through social exchange relationship based on Reichers’ (1985) multiple commitments perspective. (178-207)

  • Interscholastic Sports Sponsorship: Funding High School Athletics in Indiana, Leigh Ann Danzey-Bussell, David Pierce — This investigation focused on the current extent of corporate sponsorship/naming rights in Indiana high schools. The goal was to identify the extent of current sponsor relationships, the depth and breadth of allocation of funding and an indication of potential growth. Supported by the Indiana High School Athletic Association (IHSAA), a 20-question survey was developed and distributed via email to all 406-member institutions requesting current and historical sponsorship relations data. Sponsorship was found to exist at 73% of the participating schools for the purpose of purchasing uniforms (76.9%) and equipment (70%). Despite acquiring sponsorships, this study found that the majority of schools (45.2%) acquire less than 5% of their budget from sponsorship, thus supporting the potential for growth in sponsorships solicitation. (208-228)

  • Forecasting Tiger Woods’ Future Sponsorship Attainment, Kwame J.A. AgyemangTiger Woods has secured sponsorship agreements with the likes of Nike, EA Sports, and a host of others. Sponsors gravitate to Woods’ brand, seeking him out to be the pitchman for their product. This can be beneficial in the case that the sponsor is appropriately represented. However, in case of an athlete transgression, this relationship can be a detriment to the athlete and sponsor, ultimately causing the sponsor to sever ties with the athlete. Tiger Woods’ admitted infidelities provide an excellent exemplar regarding this situation, begetting the question as to whether the Tiger Woods brand will recover. Literature concerning negative publicity and athlete transgressions is drawn upon to forecast Tiger Woods' future attainment of sponsorship agreements. The propositions given suggest Woods’ relationship with sponsors will be amended, leading to the preeminence of the Tiger Woods brand once again. Future research directions are presented for scholars interested in the athlete-sponsor relationship. (229-242)

  • The Extent to Which Sexual Harassment and Related Offensive Conduct Exists in NCAA Institutions as Perceived by Senior Woman Administrators—Part B, William F. Stier, Jr., Robert C. Schneider,Timothy J. Henry, Gregory E. Wilding — This is the second part of a two-part national study of Senior Women Administrators (SWAs) on the topic of sexual harassment/discrimination. SWAs of National Collegiate Athletic Association athletic departments (NCAA, Divisions I, II, III) were surveyed in order to determine the prevalence of unwanted actions comprising sexual harassment and the extent to which a quid pro quo (sex for favors) environment exists for administrative staff, coaches, other employees, athletes, students, boosters and volunteers. An examination and comparison of the data was made in terms of the respondents’ (A) marital status, (B) years of experience as a SWA, (C) division of the institution, (D) level of education; and, (E) to whom the SWA reports. Findings indicate that unwanted actions relating to sexual harassment, where they are perceived to exist, are thought by SWAs to be very infrequent both in terms of the present time frame and in recent years. In addition, significant differences were found in only one of the Senior Woman Administrator demographics, that of the NCAA Division to which the institution holds membership. (243-277)


  • Trust: The Foundation of Effective Teams, Calvin Nite, Adrien Bouchet — This article will discuss teams and teamwork. Particular attention will be paid to the issue of trust as it relates to effective teams. Teams and Teamwork have become particular areas of interest for researchers when studying organizations and organizational psychology and effectiveness. Effective teams consist of members who have joined together as cohesive units, who trust one another, and who communicate effectively (Mathieu et al. 2008; Doherty & Caron, 2003; Ilgen, Hollenbeck, Johnson, & Jundt, 2005). We also suggested that there must be trust, not only among the team members, but also between the team and the leadership or the organization. Trust is the foundation on which effective teams are built. (278-284)


  • Case Studies in Coaching by Timothy M. Baghurst & Anthony Parish, reviewed by Warren K. Simpson (285-286)
  • Marketing Outrageously Redux by Jon Spoelstra, reviewed by Michael Wilkinson (287-288)
  • Mental Skills for Training for Sport by Moira E. Stuart, reviewed by Warren K. Simpson (289-290)
  • Sports Coaching: Professionalisation and Practice by John Lyle & Chris Cushion, reviewed by Warren K. Simpson (291-292)
  • Dealing with Clients’ Emotional Problems by Windy Dryden, reviewed by Warren K. Simpson (293-294)
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