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Academic, Professional, Technical, Trade, Research Books & Journals

americanpress@flash.net • 617-247-0022 • 75 State Street #100 • Boston, MA 02109

Research in Physical Education, Exercise Science and Sport

by CHARLES F. CICCIARELLA

3rd edition, 353 pgs,

ISBN 978-0-89641-514-0

$40.95(includes shipping)This book is designed for use as a text in academic programs preparing students either for professional practice in exercise science, physical education, sport management, coaching, and related professions or for subsequent advanced graduate work. Portions of this book may also find use as a reference by those occasionally engaging in research or as a text in programs requiring a baccalaureate thesis or other major exposure to research/inquiry concepts.

This book is distinguishable from other research methods texts in several important ways. First, great care has been taken to produce a text that is clear and concise, particularly in discussions of topics students frequently find quite difficult. Second, complex topics are supported by examples, illustrations, metaphors, and similar devices based on experiences that should be already familiar to most students. Many illustrations of statistical tools and concepts, for example, use data that might reasonably be generated within the world of sport. Third, this book defines research and scholarly inquiry quite broadly, thus recognizing the interdisciplinary, or perhaps more properly multidisciplinary, nature of our field. Along these lines, the first chapter discusses the wide variety of projects that may be classified as research. Fourth, an entire chapter is devoted to ethical conduct in research, including the more subtle issues involving conflicts of interest, misuse of research, and the risks faced by researchers willing to stand up for unpopular truths, as well as more obvious issues such as human and animal rights and scientific misconduct. Finally, significant effort has been made to take advantage of the widespread availability of computer technology for the teaching of research. In addition to coverage of electronic database searching and the Internet, for example, the statistical tables generally provided in the appendices of similar texts have been replaced by computer programs, available on disk to instructors, capable of performing the necessary computations directly. Rather than look up the significance of an F value, for example, the student can now compute areas under the F curves (and, thereby, probabilities of occurrence) directly. All graphs and tables in this book were produced using software commonly available to students. Although this results in somewhat lower quality than could otherwise be produced, this method was employed in order to provide more precise examples of typical computer-generated graphics.

Chapters 1 through 3 provide a context for research by introducing the student to scholarly inquiry and a variety of its forms, the role of the research requirement in academia, and the purpose and structure of research reports. Chapters 4 and 5 cover the researcher’s basic tools: the research library and concepts and issues of measurement. Chapters 6 through 10 discuss the research designs and methodologies associated with descriptive, experimental, historical, and exploratory and qualitative studies. Tools for data presentation and analysis are presented in Chapters 12 through 15. Chapter 16 deals with a wide range of ethical issues faced by the producer and consumer of research. Appendix A is written in the form of an additional chapter and may be used as a refresher by students whose background in mathematics is limited or not recent. Appendix B provides several sample documents the student may find useful, and Appendix C provides several useful MathCAD programs that take the place of statistical tables commonly found in texts of research methods or statistics.

CONTENTS

Chapter 1: THE PRACTICE OF RESEARCHA Researcher’s Attitude

The Risk of Success

The Research Environment

The Method of Science

Research Projects in Academia

Redefining Scholarly Inquiry

The Research Project and Academic Documentation Requirements

Research Producers and Consumers

Types of Research Studies

Terms

Exercises

Additional Resources with Annotation

Chapter 2: COMPLETING THE ACADEMIC RESEARCH REQUIREMENT

Target Dates and Deadlines

Finding a Topic

Selecting an Advisor and Advisory Committee

The Research Proposal

The Problem Hearing

Handling Data

Technical Assistance

The Oral Presentation

Final Matters

Terms

Exercises

Chapter 3: THE RESEARCH REPORT

Preliminary Pages and Appended Materials

The Main Body of the Report

Tense in Research Writing

Avoidance of Sexist and Offensive Language

Style and Manuscript Preparation

Publishing the Results

Terms

Exercises

Additional Resources with Annotation

Chapter 4: LIBRARIES AND RELATED RESOURCES

What is a Library?

Library-Like Resources

A Library Research Plan

Note Taking

Critical Reviewing

Copy Machines

Finding Things: Library Resources

Periodical Indexes

Other Indexes

Computerized Indexes

On-Line Indexes

Interlibrary Loan and Visiting Scholar Services

Microform Resources

Internet Resources

Major Reference Tools

Terms

Additional Resources with Annotation

Exercises

Chapter 5: MEASURING THINGS

Definition

Error

The International System of Units

Compound and Derived Units of Measure

Conversion of Units of Measure

Measurement Instruments

Measurement Protocols

Precision

Validity

Reliability

Efficiency

Objectivity and Subjectivity

Variables and Scales of Measurement

Use of Significant Digits

Measuring the Hard to Measure

Terms

Exercises

Additional Resources with Annotation

Chapter 6: MATTERS OF DESIGN

Threats to Validity of Research

Threats to Internal Validity

Threats to External Validity

Methods of Inquiry and Scientific Rigor

Types of Variables in Research

Research Pitfalls

Pilot Studies and Rehearsals

Terms

Exercises

Additional Resources with Annotation

Chapter 7: DESCRIPTIVE RESEARCH METHODS

Populations and Samples

Methods for Sampling

Sample Size

Methods of Subject Contact

Maximizing the Rate of Subject Participation

Types of Survey Items

Survey Item Construction

The Delphi Method

Terms

Exercises

Additional Resources with Annotation

Chapter 8: EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH CONCEPT

Exploring and Experimenting

Where Do Hypotheses Come From?

It is Impossible to Prove a Negative

The Null Hypothesis and Its Alternatives

Pre-Experimental Designs

True Experimental Designs

Other Designs

Quasi-Experimental Designs

Meta-Analysis

Terms

Exercises

Additional Resources with Annotation

Chapter 9: HISTORICAL RESEARCH METHODS

Scholarly Work in History

Historical Methods

Terms

Exercises

Additional Resources with Annotation

Chapter 10: EXPLORING AND QUALITATIVE RESEARCH METHODS

The Focus Group Interview

The In-Depth Individual Interview

Systematic Observation

Participant and Non-Participant Observation

Context Analysis

Mathematical and Graphical Exploration

Terms

Exercises

Additional Resources with Annotation

Chapter 11: DATA PRESENTATION

Bar Charts

Proportional Graphs

Scatter Diagrams

Line Graphs

Tree Diagrams

Flow Charts

Maps

Tabular Presentation of Data

Data Presentation Media

Exercises

References

Additional Resources

Chapter 12: A GALLERY OF GRAPHICS

Basic Graphs and Charts

More Bar Charts

More Histograms

More Pareto Graphs

More Scatter Diagrams

More Pie Charts

More Line Graphs

More Maps

Chapter 13: ELEMENTARY STATISTICS

Learning Statistics

Parametric and Non-parametric Statistics

Basic Descriptive Statistics

Variability

Interquartile Range and Quartile Deviation

Symmetry and Kurtosis

Transformations of Data

Transformations for Data Simplification

Terms

Exercises

Chapter 14: RELATIONSHIPS AMONG VARIABLES

Multivariate Data

Association of Bivariate Data

Correlation Does Not Imply Causation

Correlation Statistics

Pearson’s Product-Moment Correlation

Spearman’s rho Correlation

Kendall’s tau Correlation

Kendall’s Coefficient of Concordance

Other Linear Correlation Statistics

Biserial and Point Biserial Correlation

Phi Correlation

Tetrachoric Correlation

Is an Association Real?

The Variance Interpretation of Correlation: Is an Association Meaningful?

Comparing and Combining Correlation Coefficients

Non-Linear Associations

The Regression Line

The R.M.S. Error for a Regression Line

Plotting Residuals

Partial and Multiple Correlation and Multiple Regression

Polynomial Regression

Exercises

Chapter 15: MAKING GROUP COMPARISONS

Type I and Type II Error and Selection of the Alpha Level

Tests of Significance: Alternative Hypotheses

The z-Test

The t-Test

Analysis of Variance

One-Way Analysis of Variance

Two-Way Analysis of Variance

Fixed, Random, and Mixed Effects in ANOVA

Multiple Comparisons

Analysis of Covariance

Regression Analysis of Variance

Multivariate Analysis of Variance and Regression

Nonparametric Tests

Chi-Square

Chi-Square Test of Independence

Chi-Square Test for Goodness of Fit

The Validity of Chi-Square

Sign Tests

The Median Test (Sign Test for Independent Samples)

Sign Test for Correlated Samples

Sign Test for 3 or More Independent Samples

Rank Tests

Wilcoxon Rank Sum Test for Two Independent Samples of Ranks

Mann Whitney U Test for Two Independent Samples of Ranks

Wilcoxon Matched-Pairs Signed-Rank Test for Two Dependent Samples

Kruskal-Wallis Test for 3 or More Independent Samples of Ranks

Is a Difference Meaningful?

Tests Used in Meta-Analysis

Terms

Exercises

Additional Resources with Annotation

Chapter 16: ETHICAL ISSUES IN RESEARCH

Plagiarism

Cheating

Copyright Infringement

Rights o Human and Animal Subjects

Scientific Ritual

Environmental Protection

Conflicts of Interest

Authorship and Publishing Standards

Terms

Exercises

Additional Resources with Annotation

Appendix A

Quick Math Review

Probability and Randomness

Permutations and Combinations

The Normal Curve

Properties of the Normal Curve

Types of Numbers

Mathematical and Logical Operations

Rounding and Truncation

Order of Operations

Scientific Notation

Terms

Exercises

Additional Resources with Annotation

Appendix B—Sample Letter and Forms

B.1 Sample Cover Letter for a Survey

B.2 Sample Human Subjects Review Form

B.3 Sample Informed Consent Statement

B.4 Sample Data Form for a Two-Condition Study

B.5 Sample Data Form for a Two-Group Study

B.6 Sample Data Form for a Two-Measure Study

Appendix C—MathCAD Programs

C.1 The Normal Curve

C.2 Area under the t-Curve and the t-Test

C.3 The F Distribution and F Test

C.4 Chi-square Distribution and Test

C.5 MathCAD Program for the z Transformation of the Correlation Coefficient

C.6 MathCAD Program for Random Number Generation

C.7 MathCAD Program for Calculating Roots and Powers

C.8 MathCAD Program for Computation of Combinations and Permutations DCD and Internet

Appendices

ADDITIONAL RESOURCESThe following materials are available from the author.

- Color illustration files in jpg format.
- Data files in SPSS format, for data analysis practice using SPSS.
- Excel version of SPSS files described above, for data analysis practice using Excel.

To obtain them, simply send a request to the author, at Information@Charles Cicciarella

ABOUT THE AUTHOR ...

is an associate professor of Health and Physical Education at Louisiana Tech University in Ruston, Louisiana. His primary areas of expertise include research methods and statistics, applied computing, aquatics, health and speleology. He received his Ed.D. in Human Movement from Boston University, his M.S. in Physical Education from Northeastern University and his A.B. in Biology also from Northeastern University. Dr. Cicciarella holds an endowed professorship, known as the "Melvin McCann Professor of Education."Charles Cicciarella