IJSM Contents & Abstracts Volume 16 (2015)

ISBN 978-0-89641-545-4

  • Continuity of Operations (COOP) Preparedness of NCAA Division I Athletic Departments: An Exploratory Study — Brandon Allen, Stacey A. Hall, Dennis Phillips — The purpose of this study was to examine the continuity of operations (COOP) preparedness of NCAA Division I athletic departments based on the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) continuity planning standards. Participants included athletic directors and facility directors from NCAA Division I athletic programs (N=344). A total of 91 surveys were completed for a response rate of 26%. Seventy-five percent (75%) of the schools in this study reported COOP preparedness means below 4.0 on a 5.0 scale, indicating that significant efforts are underway but important gaps remain. Furthermore, some athletic conferences reported scores below 3.0, indicating very limited progress. Division I schools are better prepared in areas of identifying essential functions, delegations of authority, and communications. However, institutions scored low in relation to recovery and reconstitution, development of training plans, and conducting exercises. Exploring continuity planning gaps will aid college athletic stakeholders in future planning and policy decisions regarding all-hazard emergency preparedness. (1-15)

  • The NCAA Distribution System: What is the Spillover Effect of College Athletics on Student Fees and Academics? Louis Pantuosco, Keith Robbins — This article investigates the impact of athletic department operations on the overall student body. It views whether the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) plays a role in the disparities between Division I athletics programs in power versus non-power conferences. The article also addresses how student-fees fund non-profitable athletics programs. While it may be true that students at the power conference schools incur lower student fees due to athletics revenue generation, do athletics demonstrably benefit the academic side of campus? (16-38)

  • An Examination of State-of-the-Art Clauses in National Football League Stadium Leases: A Content Analysis with Current and Future Implications — Patrick Tutka, Chad Seifried — This article provides a brief literature review regarding what ‘state-of-the-art’ clauses generally require in National Football League (NFL) stadium leases. A content analysis of 24 collected stadium leases highlighted within the results section shows that three different types of state-of-the-art activities (i.e., unlimited, limited, and capital improvement) exist in language of current NFL leases. Further, the leverage articulated in state-of-the-art clauses demonstrates the public regularly pays for facility renovation or new facility construction efforts. The paper concludes with a brief discussion regarding how the costly ‘state-of-the-art’ clause impacts municipalities and potential future NFL stadium construction. (39-61)

  • Does Greater Opportunity for Recreational Sport Involvement Translate to Greater Degree of Involvement? — Leeann M. Lower, Brian A. Turner, Jefferey C. Petersen — Based upon Astin’s (1999) assertion that programs are as effective as their ability to increase involvement, a comparative analysis of two universities’ recreational sport program involvement was conducted. Program participants (n = 2448) were surveyed to assess program involvement (measured in time) across three program areas (group fitness, intramural sports, and sport clubs). Results revealed significant differences in participant involvement between institutions for all three program areas, with the large institution demonstrating greater involvement in each area. For recreational sport practitioners, understanding ways to increase participant involvement is critical; these findings demonstrate measurable outcomes related to programmatic offering levels. (62-76)

  • A Conceptual Framework for Assessing Brand Equity in Professional Athletes — Antonio S. Williams, Patrick Walsh, Isabell Rhenwrick — Athletes have become more than stars in their individual leagues and teams. However, a gap exists in sport management literature in regard to how consumers’ develop their perceptions of athletes as brands, how those perceptions contribute to the value of the athlete brand in the marketplace, and the unique consequences these perceptions hold for athletes and their stakeholders (e.g., team, sponsors). Therefore, it is suggested here that a general model for consumer-based brand equity in sport is no longer sufficient, and a brand equity model that conceptualizes an athlete’s unique ability to utilize their skill set and personal attributes to create brand equity in the minds’ of sport consumers is needed. Thus, we propose a conceptual framework for the development of athlete-brand equity. The unique characteristics of athlete brands are established through organization-induced, market-induced, and experience-induced precursors. We propose that the aforementioned precursors contribute to the formation of brand awareness and brand associations (i.e., athlete-brand equity). Furthermore, we postulate that the development of athlete-brand equity results in a set of consequences such as consumer brand loyalty, brand extension opportunities, increased media coverage, and licensing opportunities. (77-97)

  • Demographic Considerations for Seeking Accreditation in Undergraduate Sport Management Programs — Shannon T. McCarthy, Stephen W. Dittmore — Since inception COSMA’s inception in 2008, little research has focused on undergraduate sport management programs. This study aimed to gain an understanding of current programmatic demographics of undergraduate sport management programs. Basic program data was collected from 117 schools. Most schools in the sample had a Carnegie classification of Master’s Large, were located within a College of Business, awarded a Bachelor of Science, and titled their program “Sport Management.” Academic programs at Division I FBS schools had statistically more students than Division II, III, or NAIA schools. Most respondents reported prior knowledge of COSMA, but only 70% considered seeking accreditation. (98-117)

  • What Makes a Physical Activity Program Targeted to Women Successful: Local Government Managers’ Perceptions — Clare Hanlon, Tony Morris — In this study, we examined perceptions of managers employed in 37 local government regions throughout Victoria, Australia about the characteristics of a successful sport and active recreation program targeted to women, the strategies used to recruit and retain women and the types of program that were deemed successful. Managers completed a survey with open-ended responses that we categorised. We applied the social-ecological model to determine the levels of influence to further enable the recruitment and retention of women in these programs. A key finding was the lack of strategies incorporated at the policy level to help support the recruitment of women in sport and active recreation programs. (118-140)

  • Athlete Management and Satisfaction in a Gambling-Legal Bicycle Racing Business in South Korea — Kae-Sung Moon, Yong Jae Ko, Daniel P. Connaughton, Chang Guk Lee, Jeoung Hak Lee — The purposes of this study were twofold: (a) to examine the theoretical relationship between athlete management and athlete satisfaction, and (b) to examine athlete satisfaction toward an athlete management program based on age, career length, income, and the class of racers. The results of multivariate analyses of variance (MANOVA) using a total of 413 South Korean bicycle racers, employed in a gambling-legal industry, suggest that there are significant differences in athlete perceptions among groups of athletes of different ages, annual income, and racing class/level. The results of a structural equation model (SEM) test suggests that athletic performance and mental management are positively related to athlete task satisfaction while interpersonal management is positively related to athlete social satisfaction. Theoretical and managerial implications are discussed. (141-162)

ISBN 978-0-89641-547-8

  • Sport Brand Extension Evaluations: Relationships among Brand Breadth, Brand Fit, Brand Attitude, and Purchase Intention — Donghun Lee, Lindsey Blom, James Zhang, Soon-Ho Kim, Lawrence W. Judge — Through brand extension strategy, a firm markets their products with a well-developed image using the same brand name in a different product category. While there are companies with successful brand extension, sport marketers should not forget the risk of extension failure. To provide insights to scholars and practitioners, the current study conducted an empirical examination of a theoretical framework to explain the effect of brand extension evaluation (perceived brand breadth and brand fit evaluation) on consumer attitude and purchase intention toward a potential sport brand extension. Over 500 individuals participated in this study, who commonly indicated purchase experience in various sports merchandise. Using both confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modeling, a theoretical model was tested on the large general sample from local merchandise stores. The overall results indicated good measurement as well as structural model fits to the data. General findings indicated that perceived brand breadth, attitude toward extended brands, and consumer evaluation of brand fit collectively influenced purchase intention of hypothetically extended sports merchandise. The current study provides insights into how consumers evaluate brand extension strategies and the influence of extension strategies on brand attitude or purchase intention of sport merchandise. (165-181)

  • Job Placement as a Measure of Organizational Quality: The Case of NCAA Football Conferences — Scott W. Geiger, Dan Marlin — This study examines differences in the perceived quality among National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) football conferences relative to their job placement in the National Football League (NFL). Specifically, the quality of major NCAA football conferences was analyzed utilizing a sample of 65 college football teams. The results suggest that significant differences exist among conferences in both perceived quality and objective job placement. However, while the results of this study support the notion that two conferences enjoy the greatest level of perceived quality, they fail to support the hypothesis that these conferences enjoy greater levels of objective quality as measured by job placement. This suggests that a significant gap exists between perceived and objective quality. (182-198)

  • An Exploration of Motives and Constraints For Using Sport Team Facebook Pages — Yongiae Kim, Soojin Kim, Younglin Hur — In a Uses and Gratifications framework, this study identified motives and constraints for using sport team Facebook (sport FB). Through a rigorous scale development procedure, seven motives and three constraints were identified: Social Voyeurism, Self-Enhancement, Economic Value, Fan Connection, Team Connection/Support, Entertainment Value, and Convenience for motivation; Self-Protection, Time, and Lack of Interests for constraints. Using a sample of 320 Sport FB users, the 10-factor model was verified through a confirmatory factor analysis. All motives predicted the intensity of sport FB use, with the exception of Self-Enhancement and Fan Connection. Self-Protection was identified as an important factor limiting sport FB usage. (199-220)

  • A Content Analysis into the Social Development Campaigns Promoted by the Fédération Internationale de Football Association — Tyler Henry, Chad Seifried — This research analyzed the Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA) myriad of social development initiatives through its multimedia content and organizational literature/documents. Specifically, this study reviewed and critiqued the media content (i.e., text, pictures, and videos) and other organizational documents (e.g., financial statements) of FIFA to gauge their commitment to their mission through a content analysis. Results of this study suggest, FIFA provided generous support and initiated multiple campaigns to help improve society (e.g., socially, economically, and environmentally). However, some can also say their commitment to these initiatives appears to be as much a strategy as a social development pursuit. (221-254)

  • Sport Infrastructure in a Small Community: User and Non-user Perceptions of the Impact on the Community — Cassandra Coble, Shannon Kerwin, Kyriaki Kaplanidou — The legacy of sport infrastructure projects may be unclear or differ by community. Examination of the impact of sport facilities often disregards the perceptions of non-users, thus leaving a narrow view of the true impact on communities. The purpose of the study was to determine the perceived impact of a sport complex among users and non-users in a small community. Survey and interview data was collected with residents of a rural community exposed to a sport infrastructure development plan. Results revealed multi-faceted benefits that differ by users and non-users of infrastructure that may be unique to small communities. (255-275)

  • Applying Performance Management Practices within Non-profit Sport Organisations: A Case Study of New Zealand — Ian O’Boyle, David Hassan — This article explores the extent to which non-profit sport organisations (NPSO) in New Zealand engage with traditional business performance management practices. Three organisations (Sport NZ, NZRU, NZC) were examined as part of a three year research study, which employed case study methodology to underpin its findings and analysis. This methodological framework involved in-depth interviews with a defined number of participants from each organisation (n=15) combined with relevant review and analysis of supplementary documentation. Interviews were analysed using an interpretive process, which was followed by data triangulation to ensure the findings of the study remained valid. It was confirmed that the selected case study organisations have engaged with performance management practices to varying degrees whilst factors that impinge upon the full and successful adoption of these practices were uncovered. The findings of this study create a new understanding of what was previously understood about performance management practices within NPSOs and provides scope for future research opportunities to be developed within this field. (276-299)

  • Gaining Equality in All the Wrong Areas: An Analysis of Academic Clustering in Women’s Division I Basketball — Amanda L. Paule-Koba — The phenomenon of academic clustering is said to occur when 25% or more of athletes on the same team major in the same academic program (Case, Greer, & Brown, 1987). Recent studies that examined academic clustering in National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) football have shown that clustering is occurring in the Atlantic Coast Conference (ACC) (Fountain & Finley, 2009) as well as the Southeastern Conference (SEC) and Pac-10 (Otto, 2010). However, there has been very little research into clustering in women’s sports. The purpose of this study was to examine if female basketball players are being clustered into specific majors. The 2008-09 and 2009-10 media guides from all of the NCAA Division I women’s basketball teams were used to determine the academic majors of the athletes. Results of this study showed that academic clustering is occurring at all levels of Division I women’s basketball. Thus, in striving for equality between men’s and women’s sports, it seems that women’s sports are also gaining equality in unintended areas. (300-315)

  • Utilizing Social Media as a Marketing Communication Tool: An Examination of Mainstream and Niche Sport Athletes’ Facebook Pages — Andrea N. Eagleman, Galen Clavio — The purpose of this study was to examine how athletes in mainstream and niche sports utilize Facebook for marketing communication purposes, differences between those categorizations of athletes, and what levels of feedback were generated by different content types. The official Facebook pages of four mainstream and four niche athletes were examined. Niche sport athletes included more fan-generated and personal posts on their Facebook pages, fans were significantly more engaged in status updates that appeared to be posted directly by the athlete, and the inclusion of sponsor products and services in posts did not have a significant impact on followers’ feedback. (316-334)

NUMBER 3, JULY, 2015
ISBN 978-0-89641-548-5

  • Administrator Perspectives on Search Firm Use in NCAA Division I Intercollegiate Athletics — Erianne A. Weight, Natalie Lutz, Barbara Osborne — This study examined satisfaction with search firm use in Division I intercollegiate athletics by surveying athletic administrators who have experienced working with search firms in the last five years (N=339). Descriptive statistics reveal search firm involvement with every aspect of the hiring process with an emphasis on compiling and contacting candidates. Administrators noted moderate satisfaction with the overall search firm process and candidates presented by the search firm with dominant differentiators in satisfaction and likelihood to utilize a firm in the future hinging on the factors of search confidentiality, cost, and profile. Analysis of variance uncovered significant differences in likelihood to engage a firm in the future between Division I subdivisions, and regression analysis indicated satisfaction to be a significant predictor of firm re-engagement. (335-353)

  • Examination of Premium Food and Beverage Menues in the North American “Big Four” Sports Venues — Peter Titlebaum, Danielle Kloke — The purpose of this exploratory study is to identify and study the trends in premium food and beverage based on a statistical analysis of menus. The researchers collected 69 of the 113 (61%) premium seating menus from the venues that host events for the National Basketball Association (NBA), National Football League (NFL), National Hockey League (NHL), and Major League Baseball (MLB). Then, for closer investigation, researchers narrowed down the menu items to a selection of 30 items, dividing them into the following categories: traditional fare, up-and-coming favorites, and beverages. The researchers recorded information about the items studied, noting current trends in the industry. Data results show that traditional fare for sport-chicken tenders, burgers, and pizza-has at least a 55% (38) acceptance rate across the menus studied in 9 of 10 food items. Up-and-Coming items vary much more, spanning from 3% (2) acceptance to 96% (66) acceptance at venues. Finally, the beverage category is much less variable but provides an interesting insight into the practices of creating a beverage menu; the importance of offering an expensive, generally impressive, bottle of wine is a regular practice with 75% (44) of venues offering a sparkling wine priced over $100 on their menus. (354-370)

  • Effects of Service Dimensions on Service Assessment in Consumer Response: A Study of College Football Season Ticket Holders — Gi-Yong Koo, Robin Hardin, Stephen W. Dittmore — College athletic administrators often evaluate whether football season-ticket holders are having a positive experience at events as they are a considerable direct income resource for intercollegiate athletics. This could lead to retaining season ticket holders and also increasing season ticket sales. Therefore, this study focuses on an understanding of season-ticket holders' perception of service quality and its relationship with other service outcomes. Findings may lead to enhancing the game experience which would generate additional ticket sales and retain season-ticket holders. It is an on-going issue to minimize the discrepancies between desires to attend college football and perceptions of service quality delivered at the event. (371-392)

  • Will Motivated Players Help Women’s Professional Leagues Survive? Investigating the Motives and Needs of National Pro Fastpitch Players — Jami Lobpries, Courtney Hodge, Adam Cohen — This study fills a literature gap in the dialogue around women’s professional sports. The purpose of this study was to examine the motivations of National Pro Fastpitch players, and subsequently, their needs as athletes and employees in a developing professional league. Qualitative methods were used to fully explore players’ motivations and needs. Guided by self-determination theory, results showed three intrinsic-related themes: opportunity to play professionally, being a role model, and growing a professional league. And two de-motivating themes: player frustrations and player needs. Managerial implications are addressed as findings suggest players’ intrinsic motivations alone are insufficient for player retention. (393-416)

  • Perceptions of International Sport Exchange Participants Regarding Inclusive Sport — Robert E. Baker Pamela Hudson Baker, Anya Evmenova, Laura Hayes-Harris — Disability and sport are universally pervasive. Sport for development and peace initiatives utilize the power of sport to achieve both local and global goals. Through a grassroots approach (Beer & Nohria, 2000) that facilitates meaningful, interactive contact (Allport, 1954) among participants, sport diplomacy program can promote such cross-cultural interests as enhancing understanding and awareness of inclusive sport. The sport diplomacy initiative examined in this study supported 27 groups of foreign visitors comprised of 407 athletes and coaches from 32 countries. This mixed methods case study revealed evidence of a change in participants’ awareness of sport opportunities for individuals with a disability. (417-436)

  • Examining the roles of Event Personality, Identification, and Attitudes in a Sport Sponsorship Context — Windy Dees, Todd Hall, Yosuke Tsuji — A considerable amount of sponsorship research has focused on consumer attitudes and purchase intentions toward sporting event sponsors’ products and services. Much of this research has been aimed at identifying what factors (e.g., awareness, goodwill, brand image) affect these attitudes and intentions and to what extent they influence sponsorship effectiveness. Little investigation has been done on the construct of event personality and its impact on affective and behavioral outcomes. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of event personality and event identification on attitude toward the event, attitude toward the sponsor, and purchase intentions. Data were collected (n = 279) at a professional golf tournament in the southeastern United States. Results showed that two of the five event personality characteristics and event identification led to positive attitude toward the event and sponsor, which affected purchase intentions. Theoretical contributions, managerial implications, limitations, and future research directions are discussed. (437-454)

  • Pay to Play? Pressures for Commercialization in the Organizational Field of Community Basketball Providers — Martha Barnes, Laura Cousens, Joanne MacLean — Increasingly, community sport organizations in Canada are confronted by an array of pressures from their members, their national and provincial governing bodies, and from private sport organizations in their institutional environment to adopt commercial practices. This article explores cognitive, normative and regulative processes arising in the institutional environment of the community basketball providers in one geographic region of Canada. A qualitative approach was used to explore this phenomena with in-depth interviews conducted with key actors in the field of local basketball providers including senior administrators of the basketball organizations, coaches, as well as representatives from their national and provincial governing bodies. Challenges resulting from the emergence of commercial practices and institutional entrepreneurs to the shared beliefs of the leaders and coaches of the basketball clubs, their traditional normative roles and evaluative signals, and the regulatory processes that guided the administrative of the clubs were uncovered. The pressures for commercialization did not go unchallenged with varying strategies to resist the institutional pressures employed. (455-473)

  • Examining Gender and Age Differences of Motivation for NASCAR Spectators — Leon Chen, Xiaofen D. Keating, Mark Still, Mark Zhang — Research of spectator motivation has left a void in determining gender and age differences of motivation among auto racing sport fans. In this study we examined gender and age differences of motives for NASCAR spectators within the framework of Self-determination Theory. Participants (N = 650) voluntarily completed a 5-factor Inventory of Motivation for Auto Racing Spectators in three-day NASCAR events. The results revealed significant (p < .05) gender differences of spectator motivation, in which male fans rated higher on the factor of Experience than female fans who scored on the factor of Socialization higher than male fans. Junior (age 25 and below) spectators were more motivated by event experience and socializing with their peers than intermediate (age 26 - 45) and elder (age 45 – 55) fans. The study explored the essential spectator motives for different gender and age segments and offered quantitative references for the NASCAR marketing professionals. (474-491)

  • A Picture is Worth a Thousand Words: The Influence of Signaling Organizational Reputation, and Applicant Race on Attraction of Sport Organizations — Woojun Lee, George B. Cunningham — The purpose of this study was to examine (a) how people interpret sport organizations’ diversity-related signals, (b) the manner in which these signals are associated with job search behaviors, and (c) the potential moderating roles of organizational reputation for diversity and applicant race. Students (n = 205) enrolled at a major public university participated in a 2 (signal: diverse or not diverse) 2 (sport organization reputation: diverse or not diverse) 2 (race: racial minority or White) experimental study. There were direct effects for signal, as participants expressed greater intentions to apply to the sport organization sending a diverse signal through its recruitment materials than to the sport organization not sending those signals. Race moderated these effects: racial minorities expressed greater intentions to apply to sport organizations with diverse recruitment signals, while the diversity of the recruitment materials did not affect Whites’ application intentions. (492-506)

ISBN 978-0-89641-552-2

  • The Virtue of Vision: Examining Administrator and Coach Perceptions of Value Systems in NCAA Division I Athletic Departments — Coyte Cooper, Erianne A. Weight — Previous research has demonstrated the importance of developing a strong value system in organizational settings. Given the current challenges in college athletics, the purpose of this research was to examine NCAA Division I administrator (N = 410) and coach (N = 1,477) perceptions of value systems to determine whether organizational values are consistent throughout the “upper levels” of athletic departments. Overall, the research illustrated a drop in value priority between each level of the administrative hierarchy suggesting that value “buy-in” may not be occurring at lower levels of athletic departments. (507-530)

  • The Influence of League Affiliation on Demand in Minor League Hockey — Chad D. McEvoy, Nels Popp — This study investigated the effect of league affiliation on demand in North American minor league hockey. A mixed methods approach was utilized, using both primary data in examining minor league hockey patrons’ perceptions of league affiliation and its impact on their support of and future purchasing behavior towards a team, and secondary research in creating a demand model used to isolate the impact of league affiliation on demand, as measured by attendance, in minor league hockey. Both methodologies provided evidence that league affiliation does influence demand significantly. (501-546)

  • The Impact of Team Tenure and Relational Embeddedness on Performance: An Analysis of Social Capital in the National Basketball Association — Christian Stone, Chris Smith, Michel Rod — We propose that a team can develop an advantage over its competitors by attempting to limit the turnover of its core players, full team and coach, allowing time for the development of social capital between members. Using multiple regressions analysis and data from the 2009-2010 NBA season, we have identified a significant positive relationship between the average tenure of a team’s core roster and its regular season performance. Further, a significant negative relationship was found between the average tenure of the team’s full roster and performance. This indicates the importance of keeping the core together and rotating the non-core team members to optimize performance. (547-572)

  • Compounding Crisis Events and the Organizational Response — Timothy B. Kellison, Jordan R. Bass, Justin Lovich — Given the high visibility of big-time sport organizations, decisions made regarding hiring and firing, salaries and promotions, and strategic planning are subject to scrutiny from a number of sources, including employees, fans, alumni, boosters, competitors, political leaders, and the media. In this article, a decision-making model that illustrates three paths sport managers may take when responding to crisis events is presented. These paths include: resolution, escalation, and pacification. In every case, decision makers engage in organizational perception management to protect (or repair) their organization’s reputation and image. The model is applied to several recent crisis events in sport to further illustrate the unique decision-making options. (573-600)

  • Participation in Interscholastic Sports: Do the Academic Performances of Athletes and Non-Athletes Differ? — Angela Lumpkin, Rebecca M. Achen — The academic performances of Kansas students in grades 9-12 during 2011-2012 were examined to identify differences between athletes and non-athletes. Athletes in Kansas attended a significantly higher percentage of days of school than non-athletes. In all athlete versus non-athlete comparisons (i.e., overall and for males, females, Whites, and minorities) athletes graduated at a significantly higher rate and were significantly less likely to drop out of school. This trend was true for males, females, Whites, and minorities across grades 9, 10, 11, and 12. Some differences in ACT subscores also were found between athletes and non-athletes. (601-619)

  • The Role of Demography and Migration in Shaping the Future of Leisure, Recreation, and Sport — Eric C. Schwarz, Nigel I. Jamieson, Brenda G. Pitts — The growth of sport around the world has been unprecedented in recent years. So too have demographics and migration movements of people. These have a direct impact on existing and planned enterprises, particularly in the sport, leisure & recreation industries around the globe. As we move deeper in to the 21st century, a need to attempt to forecast the future of sport is apparent. Such attempts will inform sport management professionals and their work to plan for strategic competitive advantage. Moreover, sport management educators need the wisdom of practitioners to effectively educate and prepare future sport management professionals. Thus, demography and migration information is crucial. Therefore, it was the aim of this paper to examine demography and migration and relate this to how these will potentially shape the landscape of sport worldwide. (620-644)

  • The Antecedents and Consequences of Intercollegiate Athletic Associational Reclassification: A Multiple Case Study Perspective — Jimmy Smith, Marvin Washington — The purpose of this research assessed the internal perspective of athletic departments reclassification. An organizational archetype and track framework directed qualitative research of seven athletic departments. A multiple case study methodology using purposive sampling clarified the distinctiveness of athletic departments reclassifying through an explanatory approach. Results uncovered taken for granted aspects during reclassification through internal organizational considerations. Unexpected results came between the relationship of the upper administration (e.g., President) and athletic administration. This research is timely as universities continue to consider change through reclassification. Contributions of this study add to the limited knowledge of athletic departments reclassifying athletic associations. (645-664)

  • Index to IJSM Volume 16 (665-668)

  • Manuscript Guidelines for Authors (669-671)
E-mail americanpress@flash.net to order PDFs of any article.