IJSM Contents & Abstracts Volume 17 (2016)

ISBN 978-0-89641-555-3

  • The Value of Intercollegiate Athletics Participation from the Perspective of Former Athletes — Erianne A. Weight, Mary Rob Plunkett, Barbara Osborne, Elizabeth Lancaster — The purpose of this study was to identify the benefits of intercollegiate athletic participation from the perspective of recently graduated former Atlantic Coast Conference Olympic sport student-athletes. Four “benefits” were explored via an online survey including the educational competencies developed through participation, the effect of participation on collegiate academic success, the effect of participation on post-graduate opportunities, and the most poignant lessons learned. Descriptive statistics and ANOVAs were utilized to present quantitative data, and qualitative narratives were coded and triangulated with the literature, theoretical foundation of stakeholder theory, and quantitative findings. Results indicate student-athletes valued education through athletics over education through traditional classroom studies in their preparation for life-after-graduation with work ethic the most highly ranked educational component developed. (1-21)

  • Portraits of Kenyan Women in Sport Leadership: Evidence of Determination, Perseverance and Achievement — Janet Musimbi M’mbaha, Jepkorir Rose Chepyator-Thomson — Despite increased studies on women in leadership over the last three decades, research on African women remains scarce. The purpose of the study was to understand women’s lives and career decisions in sport leadership in the context of Kenya using social constructivism and postcolonial feminist theoretical perspectives. In-depth interviews were used in data collection and constant comparative methods and thematic analyses were used in data analysis. The findings of the study indicated various social-cultural factors and different background characteristics to influence participants’ paths to positions of sport leadership. The background characteristics included: large families, high educational qualifications, diverse professional careers, and participation in competitive sports. (22-48)

  • Building Nation Brand through Celebrity Athletes — Sung-Bae Roger Park, MyoungJin Kim, Joon-Seo-Andrew Chow — The main purpose of this present study was to identify if the world-class level of performances by Korean celebrity athletes at mega-sporting events such as the FIFA World Cup, Winter Olympic Games, EPL, LPGA, and MLB would contribute to enhancing Korea branding. The results of tag clouds found that multiple mentions of adverbs that are generally used to describe personal character traits were used, such as “graceful, dedication, and endurance.” This could be an indication that sport is not divided among national boundaries, or cultural lines, but instead sport is able to essentially erase those identifying factors in favor of, and in appreciation for, the performances of the athletes themselves. (49-61)

  • The Role of Community Sport Venues, Environmental Factors and Servicescape in Attracting and Retaining Users — Popi Sotiriadou, Pamela Wicker, Brad Hill — The scarcity of empirical research into the ways community venues’ servicescape affects sport participation guides this paper. Using qualitative data, the role of community venues servicescape factors on sport development is explored. Based on the sport participation attraction-retention-transition-nurturing (ARTN) model, a framework is developed that isolates community sport venues as a sport development tactic. It illustrates the role of venue stakeholders and the effects of various venue related factors on the pathways for sport development and participation. The results provide venue managers and sport development officers with information about the joint effects of servicescape and sport development processes. (62-83)

  • The Effect of Time-off and Familiarity on Organizational Performance: Evidence from the National Football League — Jeremy J. Foreman, Brian P. Soebbing, Ryan Rodenberg — Examining NFL regular season games since the inception of the bye week (1990-1991 season), we analyzed the likelihood of winning and the margin of victory. We found teams with seven fewer days prior to a game than their opponent were eight percent less likely to win the game. Partitioning the sample based on division opponents and non-division opponents, we saw only similar results for non-division opponents. This result is attributed to the familiarity of the divisional opponent. Overall, these results have implications for both researchers examining the impact on scheduling and practitioners in sports leagues all over the world. (84-101)

  • An Exploration of Students’ Conceptualization of Affirmative Action in Sport Management Careers — Jacqueline McDowell, Emeka Anaza — Given the low representation of women and persons of color in many sport organizations, current and future sport managers should be properly educated about diversity and affirmative action concepts. Graduate students majoring in sport related majors are potentially the future managers in sport organizations; hence this study investigated their conceptualizations of affirmative action. Master’s students from twenty-seven universities in the Midwest and Southwest regions of the U.S. provided personal definitions of affirmative action and rated affirmative action definition and attitude scales. Students primarily believe that affirmative action involves recruitment efforts and hiring quotas in order to level the playing field and ensure equal opportunities in the workplace. These findings have implications for changing students’ knowledge and attitudes about affirmative action. (102-128)

  • Discovering Network Legitimacy in the Fitness Industry: A case Study of REPs NZ — John MacFarlane, Sean Phelps, Nico Schulenkorf — Fitness industry registers may strategically attempt to enhance their field’s professional legitimacy via self-imposed regulation. Incorporating a conceptual framework of organisational legitimacy, this study identifies how 12 Auckland fitness centre managers perceive register affiliation. Representatives from the New Zealand Register of Exercise Professionals (REPs NZ) and Fitness New Zealand also contributed. Findings suggest participants are aware of the industry regulation concept, but opinions are mixed and member benefits are observed as minimal. Tensions exist between affiliates and non-affiliates regarding observed substantive/symbolic affiliate behaviours and the actual/perceived role of REPs NZ. Organisations act strategically and institutionally to acquire legitimacy through affiliation. (129-153)

ISBN 978-0-89641-556-0

  • Examining the Sport Management Literature: Content Analysis of the International Journal of Sport Management— Brenda G. Pitts — The purpose of this study was to examine one of the Sport Management field’s journals, the International Journal of Sport Management (IJSM). Examining the sport management literature has become an identifiable area of research whose purpose is to determine the state of the body of knowledge toward identifying its strengths and weaknesses. Such examination leads researchers, academics, and editors to strengthen the body of knowledge by addressing the weaknesses. The current study was a content analytic analysis of the general state of IJSM since its inception. Results include that this journal has had one editor since its beginning (for the period analyzed in this study), a majority of its editorial board members are male, and there are disproportionate numbers in some of the areas examined in the papers in this journal in sport management content areas, sport business industry segments, and gender of focus. (157-177)

  • Sport Spectator Identification Scale: An Item Response Analysis Approach — N.D. Theodorakis, N. Tsigilis, D.L. Wann, G. Lianopoulos, A. Al-Emadi — The purpose of the present study was to analyze responses to the Sport Identification Scale (Wann and Branscombe 1993) within the Item Response Theory framework. Overall, 1197 individuals from three countries participated in the study: Greece (N = 765), Qatar (N = 263), and the USA (N = 169). Respondents from Qatar and the U.S. completed the original English version of the SSIS, while Greek participants expressed their identification levels with a sport team on the Greek version (SSIS-G; Theodorakis et al. 2006). Initially, the unidimensionality of the SSIS was demonstrated using exploratory factor analysis. On the next step, a Graded Response Model was used to fit the empirical data. Results indicated that items of the SSIS could capture low to average participants’ identification levels. The first five items yielded reasonable discrimination parameters, while the remaining two (#6 and #7) revealed considerably lower discrimination ability. If researchers aim at assessing spectators with high identification with a team, new additional items with adequate discrimination properties should be developed and added to the existing SSIS. (178-196)

  • Grant Writing Education and Sport Management Programs: Analysis of Grant Writing Course Syllabi — Jeremy Foreman, Khirey Walker, Chad Seifried, Damon Andrew — This descriptive case study analyzed syllabi from grant writing courses in institutions identified within the North American Society for Sport Management (NASSM) through a content analysis. Components of the courses, including course objectives, descriptions, requirements, and textbooks were examined for common themes. Results of this investigation suggest practicing faculty focus their instruction on course activities like collaboration, writing skills, searching methods, and preparation. Second, applied learning is a critical activity necessary for grant writing. Third, certain required and/or recommended course readings can assist instructors. Fourth, grant writing course instructors should look to train students through the use of grant sites. (197-218)

  • The Motives of Fans Attending Local Intercollegiate Wrestling Events — Lamar Reams — Utilizing the Wrestling Consumer Preference Scale (WCPS), local, North American intercollegiate wrestling fans were surveyed regarding their motivational preferences to attend duals. Single sample t-tests were conducted and found the variables of wrestling loyalty, achievement, individual match-ups, individual wrestler affiliation, social, learning opportunity, and entertainment as significant fan motives to attend. Comparisons of motivational preferences across varying lengths (i.e., years) of fandom were also analyzed. A multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) was employed and found significant differences on the variables of achievement, individual match-ups, individual wrestler affiliation, learning opportunity and wrestling loyalist. No significant differences were observed for the entertainment, social and team affiliation variables across varying lengths of fandom. Theoretical and pragmatic implications are provided to conclude the study. (219-234)

  • Strategic Fitness Communication: Examining Social Media Usage in the Fitness Sector of the Sport Industry — Antonio S. Williams, Benjamin K. Wright — No research exists on how the fitness industry is employing social media to reach its target consumers. We empirically tested the Strategic Fitness Communication model (SFCM) proposed by Williams (2012) through the examination of fitness magazine tweets. We found that the largest number of tweets analyzed in the study were exchanges between the fitness magazines and other Twitter users. The second most common category included messages that used fitness as a vehicle to disseminate information contained in the print version of the magazine. Public health, nutrition, and modes of exercise represented the third, fourth, and fifth most common categories. (235-252)

  • Exploring the Motivation of Collegiate Recreational Sport Participants — Megan L. Parietti, Leeann M. Lower — This study explores what motivates individuals to participate in recreational sports. This topic is important to study as most universities in the United States have recreational sports programming. Participants (n=649) were asked an open-ended question to derive what would motivate them to engage in recreational sports. Qualitative content analysis was performed on the participants’ responses, followed by descriptive statistics to examine the motivations. Results indicated that extrinsic motivations were the most common. Differences were discovered based on gender, academic year, recreational program, and degree of involvement. This study can help to inform recreational programming and research on recreational sport motivation. (253-272)

  • What Should NASCAR Events Include to Attract New Fans: Developing University Students’ Fanship — Kyu-soo Chung, B. Christine Green, So Youn Lim, Clay E. Harshaw — The study examines, from among 1334 university students, the level of interest in NASCAR, NASCAR-related consuming patterns, and the likelihood of visiting a regional NASCAR event. The study finds the segment of males within a social club were more likely to visit a NASCAR event. Focus-group interviews revealed cultural incompatibility with the sport and its fans, a marketing gap, and a lack of knowledge of the sport were the main barriers of attending NASCAR events. Marketing strategies to attract this group are also discussed. (273-293)

  • Competitive Cheerleading as a Sport: Perceptions of NCAA Intercollegiate Athletic Administrators — John J. Miller, Christina L.L. Martin, Amy Spurlock — Despite its’ popularity and athleticism, competitive cheerleading is not presently considered an NCAA emerging sport. The purpose of this study was to analyze how senior athletic director and the senior women’s athletic administrator perceived competitive cheerleading. The results indicated that competitive cheerleading would not affect the substantial proportionality prong. While it could be an emerging sport in the near future, competitive cheerleading should not presently be considered an NCAA sport. Additionally, respondents with 15 years or less of experience were more receptive of cheerleading becoming a competitive intercollegiate sport than those with 16 or more years of experience. (294-313)

NUMBER 3, JULY, 2016
ISBN 978-0-89641-557-7

  • Social Media and Athletics in Higher Education — Hulda G. Black, Kimberly M. Judson, Jeri M. Beggs — Social media has transformed the way everyone experiences college sports, from the fans to the coaches to the student-athletes to the community at large. This dynamic and powerful tool provides new ways of engaging the fan base through participation, often considered the fifth “P” of marketing (Tuten & Solomon, 2013). The purpose of this exploratory study is to provide a starting point in educating constituents on how institutions are using social media to strengthen the athletic brand and build a virtual brand community. Surveys were administered to marketers within Division I, II, and III athletic programs to understand how college athletic programs are using social media. (315-335)

  • Constraints to Millennial Generation Female Assistant Coaches Pursuing Head Coaching Careers — Erin Morris, Sky Arthur-Banning, Jacqueline McDowell — The purpose of this study was to examine what, if any, barriers millennial generation (born after 1980) female assistant coaches’ perceive as present to pursuing careers as head coaches. Research shows previous generations of female coaches experienced a plethora of barriers. Qualitative interviews were conducted with 10 assistant coaches. The women struggled to figure out how to juggle a coaching career with having a spouse and children; however they saw this as a constraint that could be overcome, rather than a barrier that would prevent them from achieving their goals. (336-356)

  • Determinants Influencing the Structural Design Types of Flemish Gymnastic Clubs — Jochen Perck, Jo Van Hoecke, Hans Westerbeek, Diane Breesch — Using the contingency approach, this article explores if contingency variables of size, orientation and external pressure affect the structural design of local sport clubs (LSOs) in Flanders (Belgium). This paper considers the concept of external pressure by the government put on sport clubs to change towards more bureaucratic and professional organisations by implementing a quality assurance system (QAS). Data was drawn from a sample of 190 local Flemish gymnastics clubs, evaluated by the QAS IKGym from 2004 until 2010. By testing a number of hypotheses, results indicate that more members and more quality assurance audits (QAAs) lead to higher levels of specialisation, standardisation and decentralisation in LSOs. Furthermore, it is concluded that a structural taxonomy of LSOs provides an accurate representation of the different structural characteristics of these clubs. (357-382)

  • Ethical Decisions in Sport: an Etho-Conventional Decision-Making Model for Sport Managers — Adam G. Pfleegor, Chad S. Seifried — The need for a more ethically conscious sport management workforce is evident in contemporary athletics. As the complexity of regulations continues to increase, the intricacy of ethical-decisions faced by managers similarly intensifies. However, future sport managers are rarely prepared with appropriate ethical decision-making education. This is problematic due to the far-reaching implications that decision-makers have on organizations. Although a multitude of ethical-decision making models for organizations have been presented, few exist for sport-specific contexts. Therefore, by establishing a firm foundation of ethical maxims and sport philosophical foundations, the aim of this conceptual research is the construction of the etho-conventional decision-making model for sport managers. (383-407)

  • To Be an Athletic Director: Examining the Mediating Effect of Self-Efficacy between Family, Work Conflict and Vocational Interest — Janette E. Wells, Shannon Kerwin, Timothy D. Ryan — With evolving work and family structures, the aim of this study was to investigate the mediating effect of self-efficacy on the relationship between perceived family-work conflict and vocational interest of leaders. An online survey was used to assess National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division I senior athletic administrators’ perceptions of family-work, self-efficacy, and vocational interest. Path analysis revealed self-efficacy mediated the relationship between family-work conflict and an individual's vocational interest. The findings suggest social influences will not hinder an individual’s vocational interest when self-efficacy in his/her ability to perform is present. (408-426)

  • NFL Evolution: Does Prioritizing Player Welfare Influence Consumers — Raymond J. Cotrufo, Laura J. Burton — NFL Evolution is a Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) program designed to improve the health and safety of football participants at all levels (NFLEvolution.com). Though sport-based CSR initiatives are generally well-received by the public, the internal focus of this particular initiative may affect consumers differently. Using data provided by a sample of university students via an online survey, regression analysis was used to determine if this program affected their intentions to consume NFL-related products and media. Results showed that this form of CSR initiative may influence consumption behaviors, especially related to media consumption and intentions to discuss the NFL with others. (427-451)

  • No-Vote Stadium Subsidies and the Democratic Response — Timothy B. Kellison — Scholarship on sports stadium subsidies has covered myriad topics, including economic impact, finance, political strategy, and voter behavior. One area receiving much less attention from researchers is the emergence of the no-vote subsidy—where stadium-finance decisions are decided without a public vote—as a frequent alternative to direct democracy (i.e., referendums or initiatives). In this article, it is contended that an unfavorable no-vote subsidy can have damaging effects on a team’s financial performance, the reputation of elected officials, and citizen confidence in the democratic process. Whereas previous analyses of stadium-subsidy debates often end with a voting outcome (i.e., the issue is passed or rejected), the conceptual model presented in this article explores how attitudes toward a no-vote stadium subsidy are formed, and how these attitudes can have widespread effects on a number of individuals, groups, and institutions. (452-477)

ISBN 978-0-89641-559-1

  • Cultivation of Sport Fandom in Social Media: Motivation, Identification, and E-Word of Mouth of Facebook Users — Kayoung Kim, Tae Yo Kim, Yukyoum Kim — The purposes of this study were to examine: (i) the relationship among interactive motivation of sports fans, identification and e-word of mouth (e-WOM) intention and (iii) the mediating effect of the relationship between interactive motivation and e-WOM intention in the social media. The study utilized structural equation modelling (SEM) and data was collected by an instrument from a total of 417 college students who visited their favourite athlete’s Facebook page. The results indicate that sport fandom has changed from pure interest in the athlete (organic fandom) to interactive fandom in the social media context. (479-499)

  • Does Natural Leadership Exist in Elite Youth Football — Gerco van Dalfsen, Joe Van Hoecke, Hans Westerbeek — This study assesses the evolutionary leadership theory and the natural leadership instrument of Van Vugt and Ahuja (2011) in the context of youth elite football. The Evolutionary Leadership Theory is a comprehensive new way of looking at leadership that suggests environmental pressures influence the choice of who becomes the leader. The results revealed that the concept of natural leadership, as measured using the six natural leaders questionnaire, cannot be applied to the context of youth football. The preliminary data showed that natural leadership in youth sport requires a more basic framework of leadership consisting of communication, resources and focus on competition. (500-516)

  • Pay Dispersion and Team Performance in Professional Sports: Does Task Interdependence Matter? — Yong-Yeon Ji, Jaehoon Lee, Keunsu Han, Sung Ho Kwon — The purpose of this paper is to understand the influence of pay dispersion among team members on a team’s performance in professional sports: the MLB (Major League Baseball), NBA (National Basketball Association), and NFL (National Football League). Study 1 shows that there is a positive relationship as well as an inversed U-shaped relationship between pay dispersion and team performance in the NBA. In contrast, there is a negative relationship in the MLB. These results suggest that the influence of pay dispersion on team performance varies across different sports. In Study 2, we surveyed NCAA (National Collegiate Athletic Association) coaches to examine the degree of task interdependence in professional sports on the basis of Thompson’s (1967) typology. The degree of reciprocal interdependence was significantly lower for baseball; and the degrees of pooled independence and reciprocal interdependence were higher, albeit not significantly, for football compared to other sports. Since the findings suggest that reciprocal task interdependence may not be a critical factor that can account for the observed relationships between pay dispersion and team performance, we proposed other contextual factors such as a) salary cap, b) institutionalized pay practices, c) reliance on key players, and d) discretion and programmability. (517-538)

  • Organizational Commitment among Frontline U.S. Intercollegiate Athletics Employees: An Application of the Meyer and Allen Three-Component Model — J. Michael Martinez, John J. Miller, Gi-Yong Koo — The purpose of this study was to determine perceptions of organizational commitment among frontline employees in U.S. intercollegiate athletic departments. Data from full-time personnel in customer contact roles were collected. Two factorial multivariate analyses of variance (MANOVA) were conducted to examine the effects of individual and job-related characteristics on scales of organizational commitment (e.g., affective commitment, normative commitment, high sacrifice [CC:HiSac] and low alternatives [CC:LoAlt]). Results indicate that transience influenced normative and Lo-Alt scores. The findings suggest that organizational commitment moderates relationships between perceived managerial practices and employees’ affective states. (539-560)

  • The Influence of Imagined Contact and Baseball Team Identification: South Koreans’ Prejudice toward Japanese Individuals — Sungeun Kang, George B. Cunningham — The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of imagined contact within the sport setting as a way of reducing Korean’s intergroup anxiety and prejudice expressed toward Japanese individuals. As an important extension of the imagined contact work, the authors also considered the potential moderating effects of team identification. A total of 210 Korean undergraduate students took part in the experiment. Participants in the experimental group (n = 98) were asked to have imagined a pleasant contact with a Japanese pitcher for two minutes. Those in the control group (n = 112) were asked to have imagined a positive contact with a stranger for two minutes. Results indicate that even highly identified fans do not decrease their anxiety level towards Japanese individual after the mental simulation. In contrast, lowly identified fans experienced a decrease in their intergroup anxiety level. Finally, intergroup anxiety was associated with prejudice, particularly for highly identified fans. The results are discussed in terms of practical and theoretical implications. (561-575)

  • Exploring Migration Patterns and University Destination Choices of International Student-Athletes in NCAA Division I Men’s Basketball (2004-2014) — Jepkorir Rose Chapyator-Thomson, Ryan Turcott, Matthew Lee Smith— The United States is the heartland of global basketball, whether played at the professional or collegiate level. The National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division I, the most competitive of the three divisions, has skilled players from beyond the nation’s border. The purpose of this study was to explore patterns of migration of international student-athletes and discover their institutional affiliation in U.S. NCAA Division I collegiate institutions over a 10-year period. Data for this study were derived from the NCAA Director of Media Coordination and Statistics. Specifically, the data were compiled from NCAA Men’s Basketball rosters and archives available at official university websites. This study used descriptive statistics. Frequencies were calculated using SPSS 22 software in the analyses of the data. The findings of this study revealed (a) patterns of migration reflective of continent and country of origin, with the majority of foreign-born players coming mainly from English-speaking countries, (b) diversity in destination choices that point to clustering, with mid-majors being where the players concentrated, and (c) increasing number of foreign players moving to participate in the sport of basketball in the United States. An implication from this study includes the impact of talent migration on the host country United States and on the exporting countries. (576-592)

  • Examining Identity Politics and Fundraising within Intercollegiate Athletics — Jordan R. Bass, Joshua I. Newman, Claire C. Schaeperkoetter — It has been suggested both in industry directives and scholarly research that in order to most effectively communicate with, and elicit donations from, potential donor groups, sport-based fundraising organizations need to align their “organizational identities” with the dominant social identities of target donor markets. Furthermore, the political aspects of such identities work through the interests of social groups and identities (e.g. race, class, religion, gender profession). In this article, we report on a series of interviews conducted during a campaign-long organizational ethnography of the fundraising department within the intercollegiate boosters organization of a major U.S. university. Author One spent four months in an observational role in the athletics fundraising office of a NCAA Division I athletic department. During this span, five athletics fundraising employees were interviewed. Drawing upon an organizational politics perspective, we examine the practices of hiring and promotion in this fundraising context by exploring potential issues surrounding job mobility, institutional culture, and gendered norms. (593-621)

  • Peer Motivational Climate and Its Relationship with Positive Affect in Collegiate Intramural Sports — Evan Webb, Scott Forrester — This study looks at how perceived peer motivational climates (task-involved and ego-involved) impact positive and negative affective states of intramural sport participants post-participation. Intramural sport participants (N = 315) at a Canadian university completed a questionnaire after participating in their intramural sport. Hierarchical regression analyses helped examine the effects of perceived peer motivational climates on positive and negative affect. Results indicated task-involved climates were more conducive of positive affective states post-participation whereas ego-involved climates resulted in lesser positive affective states and more negative affective states. Teams that promote improvement and effort instead of intra-team competition and conflict should have more positive recreational sport experiences. Future research should explore other psychological outcomes that can result from peer motivational climates in recreational sport settings. (622-645)

    Index to IJSM Volume 17. (646)

    Manuscript Guidelines for Authors. (649)

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