IJSM Contents & Abstracts Volume 20, (2019)

ISBN 978-0-89641-585-0

  • I Can’t Play? Now What?: An Examination of Collegiate Athlete Handbooks, Written Policies and Procedures Related to Career-Ending Injury — Amanda Paule-Koba, Kaitlin Rohr-Cordes — The National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) and member institutions claim the responsibility to support and protect collegiate athletes with a priority on their well-being (NCAA, 2017). When an athlete obtains a career-ending injury, individual universities decide whether or not to honor scholarships and medical care to the injured athletes. This research study investigated the policies, procedures, and enforcement procedures regarding athletes who obtain a career-ending injury as written in the athlete handbooks of 23 Division I NCAA university athletic departments. Utilizing thematic textual analytic procedures (Braun & Clarke, 2006), findings revealed written policies used to guide the majority of the athletic departments’ handling of athletes with career-ending injuries were inconsistent and lacked specificity. Findings implied there is more the NCAA and its institutions can do to fulfill their mission in providing career-ending injured collegiate athletes with consistent protection and support for their overall well-being during their transition out of sport. Keywords: career-ending injury, college athletics, NCAA, sport administration, sport. (1-18)

  • The Development of Community Sport Councils: Establishing Legitimacy within the Competitive Field of Community Sport — Martha Barnes, Laura Cousens — Amid the increasingly competitive institutional environment of community sport in Ontario, sport councils emerged onto the landscape in 2002 because of an initiative lead by the Sport Alliance of Ontario. This research is intended to shed greater light on the development processes of community sport councils and understand why some sport councils became more embedded in the institutional environment of community sport while others faltered. Neoinstitutional theory guided the work. In keeping with basic qualitative designs, data were collected through interviews with key informants representing nine different community sport councils. The research findings highlight that community sport councils were not alike even though they resided in similar organizational fields; community sport councils that linked to municipal bodies achieved higher levels of acceptance; and those with resources were considered more relevant. This research has implications for sport managers who are looking to community sport councils as a mechanism for enhanced collaboration. Keywords: community sport councils, legitimacy, neoinstitutional theory. (19-42)

  • Retention of Sport Event Volunteers: The Nordic World Ski Championship — Trond Svela Sand, Dag Vidar Hanstad — This article examines retention factors among major sport event volunteers. Retaining those who have the required skills and knowledge is important for organizers of annual events. Fostering a new generation of volunteers is also critical for retention due to young volunteers’ weak ties to the organization, ad-hoc engagements, and aims of self-development and self-realization. Research so far has however focused on intentions rather than actual volunteering with respect to retention factors. This study contributes to the field by examining what characterizes return volunteers. Survey data (n=737) from 2011 Nordic World Ski Championship volunteers revealed that mem¬bership with The Association for the Promotion of Skiing (the local organizer), pre¬vious volunteer experience in sport, and an interest in skiing predicted a return as a volunteer at events the following year, whereas factors associated with reflexive volunteering were insignificant. The findings are discussed in relation to recruitment of volunteers and how to optimize retention. Keywords: Volunteering; Sport event; Retention; Recruitment; Motives. (43-61)

  • Sport Talent Transfer: An Application of Transition Cycle Theory — Caroline Riot, Elisabet Osk Gudmundsdottir, Christopher Auld — Informed by Nicholson’s Transition Cycle Theory (1987) and Schlossberg’s Model of Adult Transition (1981), this study examined the key factors influencing the adaptation of elite athletes to transitioning to a new sport. Utilising a case study approach, data were elicited from semi-structured interviews with elite athletes and their coaches. The results underpin a framework of talent transfer transition that incorporates the key processes and stages of athlete transfer (i.e. preparation, encounter, adjustment and stabilisation). A number of sub-themes emerged within each of the transition cycles and relate directly to the athlete experience. Implications for theory and practice are discussed. (62-86)

  • Responsible Leadership as a Mediator between Emotional Intelligence and Team Outcomes in Sport Organizations — Majd Megheirkouni — This paper examines whether responsible leadership mediates the link between the emotional intelligence of team leaders and two outcomes as perceived by followers: leader effectiveness and team effectiveness. A quantitative approach was used in the present study. Data were collected from 242 board members, serving in 24 teams in sport organizations in the UK. The results showed emotionally intelligent team leaders are perceived as more effective by subordinates. Emotion¬ally intelligent team leaders are more effective because they exhibit responsible leadership behaviors. In addition, responsible leadership mediated the relation¬ships between emotional intelligence and variable outcomes: leader effectiveness and team effectiveness. Theoretical and practical implications of the findings are discussed, together with limitations and ideas for future research. Keywords: Responsible leadership, emotional intelligent, leader effectiveness, team effectiveness. (87-107)

ISBN 978-0-89641-589-8

  • Content Analysis of Tailgating Alcohol Policies at Division I Football Games — John Miller, Andrew Olinger, Sara Vogt, Christopher Scroggins, Andy Gillentine — The association of alcohol and tailgating has become nearly inseparable, particularly at Division I intercollegiate football games. The purpose of the study was to determine if tailgating alcohol policies have changed at Division I athletic departments since previous research (Miller & Gillentine, 2006). This study analyzed the alcohol tailgating policies for each intercollegiate athletic department from the Power 5 Conferences. The results revealed fewer policies existed regarding penalties for intoxication, type or amount of alcohol allowed, or monitor the tailgating areas than reported in 2006. Additionally, the majority of athletic departments did not have any policies concerning alcohol consumption. While the likelihood of significant harm is infrequent, altercations, driving accidents, and cases of sexual abuse have been reported because of drinking alcohol at tailgate parties. In this era of increased litigation, an athletic department must recognize their responsibilities to manage the risks associated with alcohol consumption at tailgating activities. Keywords: alcohol, tailgating, intercollegiate sports, risk management. (109-124)

  • Sport Brand Extension Evaluation: The Role of Brand Extension Authenticity — Myungwoo Lee, DongHun Lee, Michael Cottingham, Billy Hawkins, Ho Yeol Yu — Brand extension is a valuable strategic device for firms to expand their business spectrum beyond their original brands or product categories as well as to enhance their brand equity. However, failure of a brand extension is not uncommon, and little attention has been given to analyzing failures of brand extension evaluations. Moreover, although brand authenticity is one key to understanding consumers’ perceptions of brand reputation, no attention has been paid to the way in which sport consumers perceive the concept of authenticity in the sport manufacturing context. Data were collected from 504 undergraduate students who were given questionnaires asking two different brand models. Structural equation modeling suggests that brand extension authenticity plays a key role in the relationship between perceived fit and brand extension evaluations in both success and failure cases. Furthermore, brand extension authenticity is directly associated with positive brand extension evaluation in both success and failure cases. Keywords: brand authenticity, brand evaluation, extension brand. (125-149)

  • Impact of Negative Media Stories on Fan Perceptions and Behavior Toward Rival Teams — Cody T. Havard, Terry Eddy — This preliminary study tested how a fan’s assessment of severity of rival indiscretions influence perceptions of rival teams and their likelihood to celebrate failures of those rival teams. Fans of professional sport teams were exposed to one of three descriptions of rival indiscretions that varied in level of severity (i.e., Slightly Negative, Moderately Negative, Very Negative), and then asked to report their perceptions of their rival team and likelihood to celebrate rival team failure. Results showed that the ways fans assessed or evaluated rival indiscretions influenced their perceptions and likelihood to experience schadenfreude toward the rival team. Discussion focuses on implications for academics and practitioners, and introduces avenues for future study. Keywords: Rivalry, Fan Rival Perceptions, Schadenfreude, GORFing, Rival Indiscretions. (150-170)

  • Navigating the Iron Cage: An Institutional Creation Perspective of Collegiate Esports — Anthony D. Pizzo, Gareth J. Jones, Daniel C. Funk — Esports are becoming increasingly popular at U.S. colleges and universities (Jenny, Manning, Keiper, & Olrich, 2017). Currently, collegiate esports programs are spread primarily across two departments (i.e., athletics, student affairs), with athletics often highlighted as their most viable home (Bauer-Wolf, 2019). While athletic departments provide important alignment opportunities for emerging esports programs, they also face complex institutional environments that complicate the integration of novel activities (i.e., esports). Through the lens of institutional creation, the purpose of this study was to understand how key actors within athletic and student affairs departments strategically integrated esports. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 16 university department directors from athletics (n = 10) and student affairs (n = 6). Findings indicate directors from both athletics and student affairs adopted similar institutional creation strategies that emphasized alignment with traditional sport, but dissimilar challenges related to external regulatory control and stakeholder perceptions. The discussion highlights the theoretical importance of institutional language and provides recommendations for the future management of collegiate esport. Keywords: Esports, Institutional work, Institutional creation, Collegiate athletics, Strategy, Governance. (171-197)

NUMBER 3, JULY, 2019
ISBN 978-0-89641-592-8

  • Determinants of Volunteer Motives and Future Behavior in Community Sporting Events — Myungwoo Lee, Jeffrey James — Scholars have significantly focused on examining volunteer motivations for mega-sporting events with a single construct regarding the intention to continue volunteering. However, there may be different motivations and behaviors in community sporting events compared to those volunteering in mega sporting events. The purposes of this study were to identify motives that are most and least important to those who volunteer with community sporting events, and assess whether the particular motives influence a different facet of intentions to continue volunteering in the future. Using a sample of 152 volunteers, structural equation modeling was used to assess the proposed hypotheses. Results showed that value was the most important motive for volunteering. Protective and career had negative while social and enhancement had positive influences on overall intention to continue volunteering. Protective had a negative but enhancement had a positive relationship on intention to continue volunteering relative to the influence by family or friends. Keywords: volunteer motives, community sport, retention intention. (199-228)

  • Job Satisfaction and Educational Opportunities of Millennial Graduate Assistant Coaches in NCAA Division I-FBS Football — Jarrod James, Andre Williams, Robert Malekoff, Molly Harry, Erianne Weight — The Graduate Assistant Job Satisfaction Survey was utilized to explore job satisfaction and educational opportunities of millennial graduate assistant football coaches in National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division I-Football Bowl Subdivision (FBS) institutions. Utilizing both Herzberg’s motivation-hygiene theory and role conflict theory, researchers concluded that millennial graduate assistant football coaches at the Division I-FBS level were generally satisfied with their roles, but dissatisfied with their pay. While the majority of respondents were pursuing a master’s degree, few graduate assistants reported belief that they would complete their degree within a two-year period. Athletic and academic administrators should review the responsibilities of their graduate assistant coaches to facilitate opportunities to further job satisfaction and enhance educational experiences. In addition, stronger legislation by the NCAA could protect the academic and professional affairs of DI-FBS graduate assistant coaches. (229-246)

  • Anti-Ambush Marketing Legislation and Institutionalized Brand Protection: Impacts and Implications — Dana Ellis, Benoit Séguin, Milena Parent — This study examined how institutionalized legislated Olympic brand protection has impacted Olympic ambush marketing and sponsorship. While direct marketing implications of anti-ambush marketing legislation are found to be minimal in this context, it is argued the practice represents a portion of a regime of brand protection and that public relations outcomes of legislated brand protection must be carefully managed as part of a brand management strategy. Similarly, proportionality and managing expectations are arguably important in the understanding and application of such laws. Finally, it is suggested that while the Olympic Movement may be viewed as an institutional entrepreneur with respect to anti-ambush legislation in the mega-event field, the individual character of each Olympic Games could interfere with complete isomorphism. (247-274)

  • Regime Change, Competitive Balance and Attendance in Australian Rules Football— Jonathan Willner — Maintaining competitive balance is often seen as crucial to sports leagues. A lack of competition within a league is likely to reduce attendance at matches, resulting in poor revenue streams. This paper examines the relationship in the context of Australian Rules Football, using data from 1946 through 2016. Of particular interest are policy changes that occurred after 1990 with the disbanding of the Victoria Football Association (VFL) and the formation of the Australian Football League (AFL). This change was driven by financial considerations, suggesting a necessary change in league policies to influence revenue streams and, therefore, competitive balance. Results show that the move from VFL to AFL had little effect on competitive balance, but that attendance grew. The results also show that in the VFL, competitive balance was not related to attendance, but that in the AFL greater competitive balance is associated with higher attendance. Keywords: Australian rules football, competitive balance, sports. (275-294)

ISBN 978-0-89641-596-6

  • Exploring the Buyer-Seller Mismatch In Amateur Sport Adoption Process — Sloane Milstein, Marlene Dixon — For amateur sport organizations, having their sport adopted as a sanctioned sport by established sport organizations provides recognition, acceptance, and extensive pathways for growing the sport. Yet, a number of sport associations have had little or no success in persuading sanctioning organizations to adopt their sport. Thus, there is a need to understand institutional demands for adding sports. Using American collegiate sports for context, this study sought to identify factors that NCAA Division I decision-makers considered essential in determining what sport to add to their varsity offerings. Accordingly, the authors conducted expert-based, in-depth, semi-structured interviews with 15 Division I athletic administrators (representing 23 sport teams). Four main product features were identified: (1) sport popularity, (2) access and opportunity, (3) association membership, and (4) university viability. Theoretical and practical implications for amateur sport organizations seeking to grow their sport through NCAA adoption are provided. Keywords: Strategy, Buyer-Seller Behavior, Amateur Sport, Decision-Making, Athletic Administration, Title IX, National Governing Bodies, Diversity (297—327)

  • Exploring the Use of Modernization in Sport Scholarship: Contributions Proponents, and Critics for Sport Management to Consider — Benjamin J. Downs, Chad Seifried — Modernization theory has been used as an organizing construct to understand and explain social and structural changes over time in society and within sport specifically. In this paper, we use an integrative literature review to evaluate how modernization scholars and sport scholars employed modernization during the 20th and 21st centuries. First, the historical application and criticism of modernization is examined to provide a contextual foundation of the theory. Second, the ways sport scholars have employed modernization is discussed. Third, the use of modernization theory by sport facility scholars and the utility of the theory is highlighted. In addition to demonstrating the scholarly conceptualizations of modernization, this review ultimately utilizes the outcomes of modernization identified in existing sport scholarship to understand the concept and to create a quantifiable index capable of helping efforts to measure the construct for future sport managers and sport management scholars to consider. (328-353)

  • Systematic Review on the Measurement of Efficiency in European Football via Data Envelopment Analysis — Philip Abel, Benedikt Datz — As the market value of European football players increases and the football teams act with more professionalism, efficiency analyses to study input-output relations are central controlling tools for the teams. The Data Envelopment Analysis is a non-parametric approach that has been widely used to measure efficiency. The aim of this systematic review is to provide a synthesis of the literature on the use of this method in European football. In this review, the authors identify 49 studies that have been published in peer-reviewed journals over the past 15 years. The results of the review demonstrate that there are important differences in the choice of the examination object as well as the variables under consideration. Approximately 60% of the studies look at sporting performance, about 40% consider financial performance. The time horizon of studies is somewhat short: more than 60% considered three periods or less. Based on the findings of the review, the authors identify five recommendations that provide direction for future research. Keywords: performance, sport teams, soccer, output, input, (354-387)

  • The Development of Shared Leadership as a Fundamental Concept in Youth Team Sport — Gerco van Dalfsen, Veerle De Bosscher, Hans Westerbeek, Jo Van Hoeck — Leadership development concerns a complex subject because it pertains an extensive number of combinations of features of people, purposes and contexts. Much research has been conducted on the development of adult leaders, but little is known about youth sharing the leadership in the context of playing sport, while the ability to choose the right leader is crucial for being successful. Youth leadership development should not only focus on building the capacity of individuals but emphasise the collective, a shared leadership approach, taken the relational network of influence into account. A 5 P’s framework (precondition, person, process, position and purpose) is used to analyse the shared leadership capacity in elite youth team sport. Shared leadership development requires a combined leadership approach whereas youth teams in sport can choose between an individual, distributed or shared leadership approach at which leader—and follower identities are claimed and granted to achieve common purposes. Keywords: team sport, shared leadership, youth development (377-415)

  • Manuscript Guidelines for Authors — (417-419)

E-mail americanpress@flash.net to order PDFs of any article.