IJSM Contents & Abstracts Volume 21, (2020)

ISBN 978-0-89641-600-0

  • Redeveloping Sport Management Conferences from a Conventional to Conversational Experience — Chad Seifried, Gregory S. Sullivan, W. Andrew Czekanski — The present paper offers the perspective of co-authors working at teaching, hybrid, and research institutions about the possibility of reimagining various sport management-based conferences. Via a review of website and conference programs, the authors make the case that sport management associations primarily support conventional rather than conversational conferences. To address this concern for all types of members, we generated several recommendations about what activities could be potentially infused into all sport management conferences to produce more conversational experiences. Those recommendations include: 1) developing full, developmental/works-in-progress, and case study paper sessions; 2) clustering presentations by topics; 3) reimagining poster sessions; 4) enhancing and expanding formal mentoring; and 5) offering industry grants and maintaining industry panels. Finally, within the current work, the notion of developmental reviewing is highlighted to demonstrate how that could produce more positive outcomes for scholars, teachers, and professional service providers interested in feedback during and before a conference. (1-25)

  • A Content Analysis of Governance Convergence in Indian Sport — Joshua McLeod, David Shilbury — This research examines governance convergence between 2013 and 2018 in three Indian national sport organizations (NSOs). In this study, governance convergence refers to the adoption of UK sport governance principles (namely the principles of Structure, People, Communication, Standards and Conduct and Policies and Processes) in Indian NSOs. To achieve the aim, a content analysis is conducted on the Indian NSOs’ constitutions. The results indicate a significant degree of convergence in all three cases. There are, however, important nuances between the organizations concerning the extent of convergence in relation to each principle. The study provides new insight to the sport governance literature, which has thus far paid limited attention to the increasing isomorphism of governance systems within the professionalizing global sport industry. Future research is encouraged to explore the factors that facilitate and impede governance convergence in Indian sport, and subsequently build a sport-specific theory of governance convergence. (26-53)

  • Superordinate Social Identity in a Professional Sport Organization’s Environmental Program — Timothy Kellison, Beth Cianfrone — In the US, the legitimacy of climate science is typically debated along partisan lines. Due in part to concerns over alienating a significant portion of their fanbases, sport organizations have largely resisted promoting their environmentally sustainable initiatives (or avoided climate action altogether). In light of this concern, in this study, we examine the extent to which environmentalist and non-environmentalist fans differ in their attitudes toward a professional sport team’s sustainability program. Using empirical material collected from 167 season ticket holders of a professional American football team, we identified 24 preliminary codes and categorized them into three groups: environmentalist, non-environmentalist, and shared. Additionally, eight categories and three themes emerged from qualitative analysis. Based on the results of the study, we argue teams may cultivate a superordinate social identity to overcome political differences among fans, thereby enhancing fans’ knowledge of the team’s environmental program and growing support for climate action. Keywords: environment, sustainability, political science, social identity, fan identification, professional sports (54-81)

  • Differentiating Motivations of Marathon Event Volunteers by Demographic Characteristics — Jaeyeon Hwang, James J. Zhang, James Hinterlong — Recruiting and retaining committed volunteers are crucial for the successful management of sport events; thus, exploring the motivational factors that affect volunteers’ behaviors is critical. Marathon events are heavily reliant on volunteers, and the organizations that host these events must understand why different groups begin and continue volunteering. This study examined the relationships among volunteer demographics and motivations in the marathon context. Conducting MANOVA to analyze survey data from volunteers at four large-scale marathon events (N = 319), we identified significant group differences in volunteer motivation based on gender, age, and prior volunteering experience. Discriminant function analyses further revealed that (a) social obligation was more important to female volunteers, (b) egoism was inversely related to age, and (c) altruism and social obligation were positively associated with prior volunteer experience. Understanding volunteers’ motivational differences can help event organizers to develop effective strategies to recruit and retain volunteers from varying backgrounds. Keywords: event volunteers; volunteer motivation; sport organizations (82-97)

ISBN 978-0-89641-601-7

  • Examination of Policy Influences on Player Migration and Socio-Cultural Impacts in European Professional Basketball — Katja Sonkeng, Jepkorir-Rose Chepyator-Thomson — Sport labor migration has increasingly become of utmost importance in global contexts albeit being a phenomenon that has always been an integral part of human history (e.g., Cimen, Eraslan, & Sarol, 2019; French, 2018; Orlowski, Wicker, & Breuer, 2018). Whether involuntarily as asylum seekers or voluntarily as skilled labor, humans move beyond their homelands in search of better economic and social pastures. The purpose of this study was to examine policy influences on player migration and socio-cultural impacts in European professional basketball. Guided by transnational theory, data were collected through semi-structured interviews and document analysis. Findings revealed policies that influenced player migration such as the practice of varying quota systems in European professional basketball leagues, the presence of lucrative avenues for athlete involvement in different countries and cultures and opportunities for professional and personal growth. The findings also showed common challenges that players faced like performance pressure and existential concerns of players in host countries. Implications from this study include the potential for international athletes to use their playing experiences as a stepping-stone for social and economic opportunities, and as an enabler of character development upon weathering adversity and problematic situations away from the comfort and familiarity of their home countries. Keywords: sport labor migration, European professional basketball, eligibility policies (101-130)

  • External Congruence Factors Contributing to Sport Sponsorship Recall in Pest control, Pizza, and Apparel Categories — Kelly Evans, Stephen L. Shapiro, Matthew T. Brown — Sponsorship congruence, or fit, is a significant contributing factor of sponsorship effectiveness. The current study focuses on external congruence factors, such as image, functional, geographic, purchase, and multi-sponsor congruence to determine which factor(s) contribute to sponsorship effectiveness. The current study measures sponsorship effectiveness through recall accuracy of three university sponsors: a pest control company, local pizzeria, and athletic apparel company. A survey was emailed to undergraduate students who previously attended a men’s and/or women’s college basketball game and measured perceived congruence at different levels of sponsorship fit between the university and sponsor: low, medium, and high congruence. The results indicate purchase and geographic congruence, level of sponsorship fit, and number of games attended are significant contributors to sponsorship recall accuracy. The results also raise the issue of a developing discrepancy between academic definitions of and consumer perceptions of sponsorship congruence. This study has five major academic and practical implications that are discussed in detail. (131-150)

  • Commercialized Fitness Clubs: Gender and Competitive Athletic Identities — Christine E. Wegner, Heather J. Lawrence-Benedict, Jeremy S. Jordan, Norm O’Reilly — Sport and physical activity are still spaces in which gender norms inform preferences and participation. But recent literature has found that certain organized spaces, such as commercialized competitive fitness clubs, may be creating a place in which a collective identity can break down gender norms and provide new opportunities for women. We surveyed more than 30,000 participants of the CrossFit Games Open and analyzed men’s and women’s athletic identity and behavioral involvement with CrossFit. We found that men’s and women’s identity with the activity are constructed differently, and that women overall have more salient CrossFit identities. However, gender still plays a role in participants’ behaviors, as women engage with the activity less overall. These kinds of clubs, then, may be important tools for creating opportunity for women in sport, but further research is needed to understand the specific mechanisms through which this can be achieved. Keywords: athletic identity, gender, commercialized fitness clubs (151-173)

  • Leading through Crisis: Competencies for Sport Event Security Professionals — Steven G. Miller, Stacey A. Hall, Chris Croft — Professional sport security directors must possess the necessary competencies needed to not only manage a crisis but to lead the organization post-crisis and positively affect organizational change. The advantages of doing so can improve communications, resource allocation, and staff training, as well as assist the organization in identifying vulnerabilities and developing countermeasures to prevent future incidents. The purpose of this study was to 1) determine the perceived levels of crisis readiness competencies of professional sport security directors, and 2) examine the relationship between personal characteristics (education level, years of experience, and participation in training) and the level of perceived competencies. A total of 69 professional sport security directors (46% response rate) from six major sports leagues in the United States participated in this study. Keywords: sport event security, crisis leadership, workforce competencies (174-192)

NUMBER 3, JULY, 2020
ISBN 978-0-89641-604-8

  • Increasing Sport Engagement through Virtual Simulators: The Influence of Virtual Golf on Self-Efficacy and Motivation — Mi Roung Chung, Jon Welty Peachey — The advancement of technology has facilitated access to sport by alleviating some leisure constraints. However, there are still intrapersonal and interpersonal barriers that need to be overcome in order for individuals to engage in sport. In the leisure hierarchy, intrapersonal constraints, which are the constraints internal to the individual including perceptions related to limited abilities and skills (e.g., self-efficacy), have the strongest influence on whether or not individuals decide to participate in an activity. Studies have revealed that when individuals overcome leisure constraints, they are more motivated to pursue an activity. With the advancement of technology some of the constraints have been mitigated, however, few studies have examined how self-efficacy and motivation can be improved through technology. The purpose of this study, therefore, was to examine how technology can influence people’s self-efficacy and their motivation to engage in sport. A quasi-experimental study was carried out where participants played beginner and professional mode simulated golf courses. Pre- and post-tests revealed that simulators can be useful in manipulating and determining participants’ self-efficacy and motivation to play golf, especially for individuals with low self-efficacy to play golf. This study is significant in that it provides sport marketers with innovative avenues to attract new customers into a sport, and from a theoretical standpoint, it demonstrates that technology can improve self-efficacy and motivation in participants who do not have previous experience in the sport. Keywords: Self-efficacy; Motivation; Virtual Simulator; Golf; Leisure Constraints (193-216)

  • Developing Ethical Leadership in Sport Management — Andrew Rudd — The frequency of unethical behavior in sport organizations has stimulated calls to increase ethical leadership. However, how will these new ethical leaders be developed? The purpose of this article is to demonstrate that ethics is currently receiving sparse attention in the sport management field and therefore more attention to ethics is needed in order to develop ethical leaders for sport organizations. Additionally, this article provides guidance on how to develop sport management students into ethical leaders. Keywords: ethics, moral development, ethical leadership. (217-238)

  • Examining the Interorganizational Links between National Sports Organizations and Their Stakeholders: A Social Network Analysis — Michael L. Naraine, Milena M. Parent, Russell Hoye, Marijke Taks, Benoit Seguin, Ashley Thompson — Given the significant changes in national sport organizations’ (NSOs) operating environment, understanding the relationship between NSOs and their stakeholders is critical to helping them manage their environment and surviving. Thus, the purpose of this study was to examine the interorganizational links between NSOs and their stakeholders to highlight network activity (e.g., coordination) and power in a 21st century operational setting. Findings from a social network analysis of 32 Canadian NSOs found that paid staff and volunteers occupying a stakeownership role, alongside consultancy groups. Additionally, athlete’s entourage and social media (users and platforms) appeared as stakekeepers, able to direct and control the flow of resources in the network. The findings suggest a shift towards increased corporatization, as well as a reduction in the importance of financial resources as an indicator of powerful stakeholder groups. Managers should therefore realize it is not about transacting with stakeholders, but obtaining and sharing information. Keywords: Canadian amateur sport, interorganizational relationships, network theory, social network analysis, stakekeeper. (239-260)

  • The Management and Development of Sport Team Captains as Human Capital Resources: Perspectives from Collegiate Coaches — Leeann M. Lower-Hoppe, Tarkington J. Newman, Shea M. Brgoch, Taylor A. Hutton — Sport team captains serving in formal athlete leadership roles provide human capital instrumental to athletic team operations and performance. Given the important functions team captains fulfill, the management and development of athlete leaders is critical. The purpose of this study was to utilize the Developing Sport Team Captains as Formal Leaders (DSTCFL) model to empirically explore how collegiate coaches manage their sport team captains, as part of a larger study. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 10 Division I coaches representing six athletic programs in the United States. Thematic analysis revealed four management practices demonstrated: team culture, recruitment and selection, development and support, and performance evaluation and reinforcement. The utility of the DSTCFL model for the management of sport team captains is discussed with implications for coach education. Keywords: sport team captains; athlete leaders; collegiate coaches; management practices; coach education (261-292)

ISBN 978-0-89641-606-2

  • Sitting to Take a Stand: Does Activism Impact an Athlete’s Brand Image — Tarale Murry, Gregg Bennett, Natasha Brison, Kristi Oshiro — Athlete activism has recently received considerable attention from various media and scholars. Despite the increased media coverage, international discourse, and activism scholarship, research gaps exist with regard to athlete brand image. Therefore, the purpose of this investigation was to assess the impact of athlete activism on athlete brand image. Specifically, fan reactions to Tampa Bay Buccaneer Mike Evans display of activism during the National Anthem in protest of the election of Donald Trump on Veterans Day, 2016. Data were obtained from fan comments on two online fan community message boards: TexAgs and the Pewter Report. Researchers identified three categories of comments: critical associations, supportive associations, and fan behavior. Eight themes existed within the categories. The findings provide somewhat mixed results, although most of the narrative was negative, regarding the impact of Evans’ protest on his brand image. Based upon the findings, researchers provide implications for athletes choosing activism behaviors. Keywords: athlete activism, athlete brand image, consumer attitudes, consumer behavior. (295-324)

  • Identification with the National Football League Following Franchise Relocation: An Analysis of St. Louis Rams and San Diego Chargers Fans — Tyler C. Spencer, Adam Cocco, T.C. Greenwell — The NFL has seen a recent uptick in franchise relocation. The St. Louis Rams and San Diego Chargers moved to Los Angeles and the Oakland Raiders have committed to moving to Las Vegas. As franchise relocation continues, leagues have to be concerned with potential negative effects. Specifically, these relocations can alienate fan bases from the cities left behind. A survey of St. Louis Rams and San Diego Chargers fans was utilized to examine which different points of attachment were related to continued identification or disidentification with the NFL. Results indicated that fans who were attached to the former city were more likely to disidentify with the NFL. Disidentified fans are less committed to the NFL as a whole and consume less of the NFL through the media. Keywords: organizational identification, points of attachment, media consumption, commitment, national football league. (325-346)

  • The Impact of Sports Sponsorship Announcements on the Stock Market Returns: A Systematic Literature Review — Kamran Eshghi — Sports sponsorship represents one of the company’s most important marketing efforts. Researchers have used event studies to assess and calibrate how sponsorship contract announcements at various events affect shareholder value. The data available offer an optimum opportunity to carry out a review to understand how this method has been applied in the sports sponsorship literature, and to find ways to improve its use so that future research can benefit. This paper conducted a review of the methods implemented in more than 60 sports sponsorship studies that were published between 1997 and 2020. Important design considerations connected with event study methodology are described, along with key points of concern. Recommendations to improve the quality of conducting event studies in this field are also provided. Keywords: Sports sponsorship, event study, abnormal return. (347-395)

  • Manuscript Guidelines for Authors (396)

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